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newspaper articles and scientific genres

Newspaper articles and scientific genres. How to Analyze Newspaper Articles title

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Newspaper Genre List

The following list is an attempt to standardize terms used to designate genres of newspapers. The perspective and scope of the list reflects types of papers cataloged by members of the United States Newspaper Program .

The list is also expressed as linked open data. It is a SKOS vocabulary available in multiple serializations (RDFa, Turtle, NTriples, RDF/XML, JSON-LD); MARC-XML authority records are also available. The vocabulary IRI is  https://doi.org/10.6069/uwlib.55.d.5 , which derefences to the RDFa version. All other versions are available from that page.

The Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office has assigned the MARC code "ngl" to the Newspaper Genre List. This code may be used in subfield $2 (Source of term) in field 655 (Index Term--Genre/Form).

The intent is for these terms to provide additional access in conjunction with authorized LC subject headings.

Please refer questions, suggestions to: Jessica Albano, Editor, [email protected]

Newspaper Genre Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Abolitionist newspapers

USE Anti-slavery newspapers

African American newspapers

UF Afro-American newspapers

UF Black newspapers (American)

UF Negro newspapers (American)

Afro-American newspapers

USE African American newspapers

Agricultural exhibition newspapers

Use for newspapers which report on competitive exhibitions of farm products, livestock, baked goods, etc. with prizes for excellence, often combined with carnival-like entertainment, and held annually by states, counties, etc.)

RT County fair newspapers

RT State fair newspapers

Agricultural newspapers

Use for newspapers which feature general news stories and which focus on specific topics such as livestock, animal culture, produce, farm life, etc.)

UF Farm and agricultural newspapers

Alaska Native newspapers

(Use for newspapers written by indigenous groups living in Alaska.)

UF Eskimo newspapers

BT Native American newspapers

Alternative newspapers

USE Underground newspapers

Amateur newspapers

(Use for newspapers written, published and printed by those engaged in these pursuits as a pastime rather than as a profession.)

RT Children's newspapers

American Indian newspapers

USE Native American newspapers

Anarchist newspapers

Anti-Catholic newspapers

(Use for newspapers which regularly feature articles which speak out against Catholicism.

BT Anti-religious newspapers

Anti-Chinese newspapers

Anti-clerical newspapers

USE Anti-religious newspapers

Anti-clericalism newspapers

Anti-communist newspapers

RT Communist newspapers

Anti-fascist newspapers

Anti-Masonic newspapers

Anti-prohibition newspapers

RT Prohibition newspapers

RT Temperance newspapers

Anti-religious newspapers

UF Anti-clerical newspapers

UF Anti-clericalism newspapers

NT Anti-Catholic newspapers

RT Atheist newspapers

Anti-slavery newspapers

UF Abolitionist newspapers

UF Antislavery newspapers

RT Pro-slavery newspapers

Anti-war newspapers

USE Pacifist newspapers

Antislavery newspapers

Art newspapers

(Use for newspapers covering news about the fine arts.)

Asian American newspapers

Atheist newspapers

RT Anti-religious newspapers

Baptist newspapers

Blackfoot newspapers

Black newspapers (American)

Booster newspapers

USE Real estate development newspapers

Business and financial newspapers

(Use for newspapers which feature general news and which focus on specific topics such as insurance, investments, marketing, etc.)

UF Commercial newspapers

RT Industry newspapers

Campaign newspapers

(Use for newspapers published during a national or state election year which are party affiliated and usually limited to a calendar year.)

UF Political campaign newspapers

Catholic newspapers

Cheyenne newspapers

Chicano newspapers

USE Mexican American newspapers

Children's newspapers

(Use for newspapers published by children or specifically for children.)

RT Amateur newspapers

Chinese American newspapers

Chinese Canadian newspapers

Civil rights newspapers

Civil service newspapers

BT Labor newspapers

Civilian Conservation Corps newspapers

College student newspapers

(Use for newspapers written by college students about their schools; may include local, national and world news.)

BT Student newspapers

Commercial newspapers

USE Business and financial newspapers

Communist newspapers

RT Anti-communist newspapers

RT Marxist newspapers

RT Socialist newspapers

Community newspapers

(Use for local newspapers published for a particular neighborhood within a city or county jurisdiction.)

UF Neighborhood newspapers

UF Suburban newspapers

Company town newspapers

(Use for newspapers published for towns where one main company employs most of the community.)

Conference newspapers

(Use for newspapers published usually on a daily basis during annual meetings of major organizations.)

Conservative newspapers

Consumer cooperative newspapers

County fair newspapers

RT Agricultural exhibition newspapers

Democratic Party newspapers

Disabled newspapers

USE Handicapped persons' newspapers

Entertainment newspapers

UF Popular entertainment newspapers

Eskimo newspapers

USE Alaska Native newspapers

Ethnic newspapers

USE specific two-term descriptors that identify the ethnicity of the readership (e.g. African American newspapers, Japanese American newspapers, Chinese Canadian newspapers, etc.). One term applies to the readership of the newspaper who identify with a particular ethnicity (e.g. a publication produced by a Punjabi community would receive the term "Punjabi" rather than "Pakistani" or "East Indian"). Another term applies to the larger culture in which the group resides (e.g. American, Canadian).

Farm and agricultural newspapers

USE Agricultural newspapers

Feminist newspapers

(Use for newspapers advocating social and political rights of women equal to men.)

RT Women's newspapers

Fisheries newspapers

BT Industry newspapers

Foreign language newspapers

Code bibliographic record for language. Apply other genre or subject headings for particular groups if appropriate.

Fraternal newspapers

USE Friendly society newspapers

Free circulation newspapers

UF Free distribution newspapers

Free distribution newspapers

USE Free circulation newspapers

Friendly society newspapers

(Use for newspapers produced under the aegis of the Masons, Odd Fellows, etc.)

UF Fraternal newspapers

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT) newspapers

USE Gay newspapers

Gay newspapers

UF Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT) newspapers

UF Homosexual newspapers

UF Lesbian newspapers

UF Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) newspapers

UF Queer newspapers

(Use for newspapers sanctioned by the U.S. or state government as official publishers.)

UF Government gazettes

UF Legal gazettes

UF Official gazettes

RT Government newspapers

Ghost town newspapers

(Use for newspapers published in towns which are now abandoned.)

Government gazettes

USE Gazettes

Government newspapers

(Use for newspapers published by government organizations, but not by official publishers, e.g. Native American newspapers published by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.)

RT Gazettes

Handicapped persons' newspapers

(Use for newspapers published for and about the disabled.)

UF Disabled newspapers

High school student newspapers

Hispanic American newspapers

(Use for newspapers by, for, and about U.S. citizens of Latin American descent.)

UF Latino newspapers

UF Latinx newspapers

NT Mexican American newspapers

Homeless newspapers

USE Street newspapers

Homosexual newspapers

Hospital newspapers

BT Medical newspapers

Indian newspapers

Industry newspapers

(Use for newspapers about profit-making enterprises that produce or supply goods, services, or sources of income.)

NT Fisheries newspapers

NT Lumbering newspapers

NT Maritime newspapers

NT Mining newspapers

RT Business and financial newspapers

Japanese American evacuation and relocation camp newspapers

Japanese American newspapers

Jewish newspapers

Ku Klux Klan newspapers

Labor newspapers

NT Civil service newspapers

NT Trade-union newspapers

RT Unemployment newspapers

Lampoon newspapers

(Use for newspapers which satirize current events and people.)

Latino newspapers

USE Hispanic American newspapers

Latinx newspapers

USE  Hispanic American newspapers

Law newspapers

USE Lawyers' newspapers

Lawyers' newspapers

(Use for newspapers produced for and by lawyers.)

UF Law newspapers

UF Legal newspapers

Legal gazettes

Legal newspapers

Lesbian newspapers

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) newspapers

Literary newspapers

Lumbering newspapers

Lummi newspapers

Manuscript newspapers

(Use for newspapers produced in long hand script.)

Maritime newspapers

RT Ship newspapers

Marxist newspapers

Medical newspapers

NT Hospital newspapers

Mexican American newspapers

UF Chicano newspapers

BT Hispanic American newspapers

Migrant labor camp newspapers

Military newspapers

NT Military base newspapers

Military base newspapers

UF Military post newspapers

BT Military newspapers

Military post newspapers

Mining newspapers

Minority newspapers

USE specific descriptors, e.g. Jewish newspapers, Gay newspapers, etc.)

Mission newspapers

(Use for newspapers produced for local or national Evangelical or missionary audiences. May be published by a church or non- denominational group.)

Multicultural newspapers

(Use for newspapers about multicultural issues, racial equality or diversity. Also use for newspapers covering issues of more than one ethnic group.)

Native American newspapers

(Also apply other genre or subject headings for particular tribes and geographic locations if appropriate, e.g. Blackfoot newspapers, Lummi newspapers, Yakama newspapers, etc. See also note at Tribal newspapers.)

UF American Indian newspapers

UF Indian newspapers

NT Alaska Native newspapers

NT Blackfoot newspapers

NT Cheyenne newspapers

NT Lummi newspapers

NT Yakama newspapers

Negro newspapers (American)

Neighborhood newspapers

USE Community newspapers

Non-denominational newspapers

Non-partisan newspapers

Official gazettes

Pacifist newspapers

UF Anti-war newspapers

Penny newspapers

Political campaign newspapers

USE Campaign newspapers

Political party newspapers

USE specific party descriptors, e.g. Democratic Party newspapers, Republican Party newspapers, Whig Party newspapers, etc.

Popular entertainment newspapers

USE Entertainment newspapers

Prison newspapers

Pro-life newspapers

Pro-slavery newspapers

UF Slavery newspapers

RT Anti-slavery newspapers

NT Secession newspapers

Prohibition newspapers

(Use for newspapers advocating the legal prevention of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.)

RT Anti-prohibition newspapers

Propaganda newspapers

(Use for newspapers produced by a group or movement organized for spreading a particular doctrine or system of principles.)

Queer newspapers

Real estate development newspapers

(Use for newspapers primarily intended to promote local economic activity by touting the assets of the community.)

UF Booster newspapers

Referendum newspapers

(Use for newspapers of limited duration established and printed in support of local or state political issues.)

Religious denomination newspapers

USE specific descriptors, e.g. Baptist newspapers, Catholic newspapers, Non-denominational newspapers, etc.

Republican Party newspapers

Resort newspapers

(Use for local newspapers published for seasonal tourist audiences.)

Retiree newspapers

USE Retirees' newspapers

Retirees' newspapers

UF Retiree newspapers

School newspapers

(Use for newspapers created by schools, but generally not by the student body, e.g. Indian school newspapers)

RT Student newspapers

Secession newspapers

BT Pro-slavery newspapers

RT States' rights newspapers

Ship newspapers

RT Maritime newspapers

Shopper's guides

USE Shopping guides

Shopping guides

(Use for local newspapers which are primarily advertising media but which may include substantive local news items and articles.)

UF Shopper's guides

Slavery newspapers

USE Pro-slavery newspapers

Socialist newspapers

Sports newspapers

State fair newspapers

(Use for newspapers of annual state agricultural exhibitions.)

States' rights newspapers

(Use for newspapers advocating the strict interpretation of the Constitution, by which all rights not specifically delegated to the federal government belong to the states.)

RT Secession newspapers

Street newspapers

UF Homeless newspapers

Strike newspapers

(Use for newspapers associated with labor strikes.)

RT Trade-union newspapers

Student newspapers

NT College student newspapers

NT High school student newspapers

RT School newspapers

Suburban newspapers

Suffrage newspapers

Summer camp newspapers

Syndicalist newspapers

Tabloid newspapers

(Use for newspapers characterized by sensationalism, usually of a small size and presenting news in a concise form.)

Tax reform newspapers

(Use for newspapers advocating tax reform.)

Temperance newspapers

(Use for newspapers advocating abstinence from the use of alcohol or prohibition by law of the sale of or manufacture of alcohol.)

Trade unionist newspapers

USE Trade-union newspapers

Trade-union newspapers

UF Union newspapers

RT Strike newspapers

UF Trade unionist newspapers

UF Unionist newspapers

Tribal newspapers

USE descriptors that identify tribal community or communities for whom the newspaper is published, e.g. Cheyenne newspapers, Lummi newspapers. Assign also the descriptor Native American newspapers.

Underground newspapers

(Use for newspapers published or produced by political or social radicals or nonconformists.)

UF Alternative newspapers

Unemployment newspapers

RT Labor newspapers

Union newspapers

Unionist newspapers

Utopian newspapers

(Use for newspapers associated with the expression of visionary or ideal schemes for the perfection of social or political conditions.)

Veterans' newspapers

UF War veterans' newspapers

War veterans' newspapers

USE Veterans' newspapers

Whig Party newspapers

Women's newspapers

(Use for newspapers whose intended audience is women.)

RT Feminist newspapers

Yakama newspapers

AuthorsCast.com Logo

What genre of writing is a newspaper article?

Newspapers and journals frequently contain features written by journalists, many of whom specialize in this type of in-depth journalistic writing (see Feature style). Feature articles are often lengthier pieces of writing with a greater emphasis on style than simple news updates. They are usually based on extensive research and may even include photographs or charts.

In addition to feature stories, newspapers and magazines include news articles that provide readers with instant updates about current events. The tone of news articles can be as diverse as factual reporting on political conventions or international conflicts to commentary on social issues such as racism or sexism.

Like all writing, the aim of news articles is to communicate information and ideas effectively through the use of clear language, appropriate structure, and well-organized content. However, because news articles are used to report current events, they must be concise without boring readers with excessive detail .

Finally, newspapers and magazines include advertisements. Like news articles , advertisements are used to communicate information and ideas but they do so by selling products or services. In journalism classes, students often have the opportunity to edit advertisements, which gives them experience working with content that has a different purpose than education. Students may also be assigned topics for advertisements, which requires creativity as well as knowledge of relevant laws and regulations.

In conclusion, newspapers and magazines include all types of articles: news, features, ads.

Table of Contents

What are the types of journalistic writing, what are the features of a newspaper article, what is newspaper writing, what style of writing is journalism, what are the four genres of newspapers, what is news writing, can you identify what type of journalistic writing it is.

Each journalistic form and style employs a unique set of tools and writes for a variety of objectives and audiences. Journalism is divided into five categories : investigative, news, reviews, columns, and feature writing. Each category has several sub-types.

Investigative journalists seek to expose wrongdoing in government and business by conducting research and using sources to write articles that call attention to important issues affecting the public. Their work may include probing stories with significant social implications or exploring obscure aspects of an event for which there is little interest from other reporters. Investigative journalism is often labor-intensive as reporters must conduct extensive research and sift through evidence to tell complex stories that readers want to read. However, some investigations are so compelling that they can be published immediately after being completed.

News writers report on current events that are relevant to their audience. They may interview people involved in an incident or review documents related to the topic. The choice of what topics to cover and how much space to give them determines how much news reporting is done. Some topics may be too sensitive or controversial for news organizations to cover openly, so they may hire freelancers to do this work for them. Columnists write about subjects within their expertise that are not necessarily related to current affairs. They may take a personal approach and discuss topics such as science fiction novels or their own experiences growing up.

Characteristics of a newspaper article include the following:

An article is usually between 600 and 3,000 words long.

It includes a headline above the main body of the text. The headword (or title) is often used as a label when searching for articles using computer software.

The article should be relevant to readers' needs and interest and contain information that is accurate and not biased against any particular idea or opinion. News articles should also be timely; that is, they should discuss issues that are currently being debated by people interested in their outcome.

In general, an article is considered successful if it attracts attention from readers.

There are two types of articles published in newspapers: news articles and feature stories/articles. A feature story may have more than one section, such as sports, business, lifestyle, etc. Often, these sections are printed on different pages so that readers can turn to other parts of the paper for information on other topics presented therein.

A news article is written with the intention of informing the reader about current events.

The prose style employed for news reporting in media such as newspapers, radio, and television is known as the news style , journalistic style, or news-writing style. The similar word "journalese" is occasionally used to refer to news-style writing , generally in a derogatory manner. Another example is headlines. A headline is a short sentence that summarizes the story within the article.

In journalism courses at universities around the world, students are often required to write articles on topics of their choice. Many of these articles follow a standard structure based on those used by journalists, with an opening paragraph that introduces the topic, body paragraphs that expand upon this introduction, and a conclusion that sums up the main idea.

News writing involves selecting relevant information from various sources (including other articles) and presenting it in a clear and concise format for readers. This can be done through the use of headings and subheadings, which allow editors to organize material found in a news report or essay. News writers may also include photos, charts, diagrams, and videos in their stories to enhance understanding of complex issues or events.

Finally, news writing requires being aware of recent developments in your field of interest and being able to describe them in a way that stays current with what people want to know about. In other words, you must stay ahead of the curve.

Journalistic writing is a writing style that is used to report on news items in a range of media types. Short, uncomplicated words and paragraphs that provide objective narrative based on facts are obvious elements of the style. Journalists use quotations to provide credence to their stories.

The most significant information is presented first in a news story, and each paragraph provides less and fewer details . This writing style is known as "The Inverted Pyramid." It refers to the 'front loading' of a news report item so that the most significant information is shown to the reader first, or on top.

The following newspaper genres (or text kinds) can be distinguished:

Journalism is the practice of writing for publication in a newspaper, usually about current events. Journalism is an industry that employs many writers to write about events as they happen.

News writing is one part of journalism. It involves writing about current events, including politics, sports, entertainment, and science. News writing can be done formally or informally. Formal news writing requires that certain standards are met; for example, evidence should be cited when used as proof for a claim or assertion. Informal news writing may not meet as many requirements but still offers useful information for your readers . For example, when covering a music festival, you might make observations about the line-up and report on any controversies surrounding some of the performers.

In today's world, the word "news" has become a broad term that includes anything that happens that people want to read about or watch. This means that journalism needs to be flexible enough to understand what people want to know about. For example, when Hurricane Harvey hit Texas last year, many people wanted to know how much rain it was able to dump out onto land. Someone from the media would have had to go out there and find out! But this fact story was written because it provided useful information for your audience .

There are several sorts of articles or journalism in journalism. News stories, interviews, features, reviews, essays, and editorials are among the most well-known. The most significant sort of article in journalism is the news piece. A news story is a brief narrative written for the purpose of informing the reader about current events. News stories are usually presented in newspapers but can also appear online or on television. Some examples of common topics for news stories include politics, sports, entertainment, and business.

News stories are different from other types of articles because they need to be timely. This means that they need to be written and published within a certain time period after an event occurs. For example, a news story about a political campaign event would have to be published before or around the same time as the campaign event itself. Other types of articles do not have to be published so quickly but rather at any point in time that suits the writer. For example, an essay describing a journey would not be published until after the trip was taken. Reviews of books, movies, or concerts can be written and published without any deadline at all.

Sometimes people will write articles about current events that they think readers will find interesting. These are called opinion pieces or commentary. Opinion writers may want to express their own views on issues such as politics or sports or they may want to share their opinions on subjects such as music or movies.

About Article Author

Colleen Tuite

Colleen Tuite

Colleen Tuite is a professional editor and writer. She loves books, movies, and all things literary. She graduated from Boston College summa cum laude where she studied English with Creative Writing Concentration.

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Media guide

Journalism genres and article types.

newspaper articles and scientific genres

In journalism, there are several different article or journalism types. Some of the best-known include news articles, interviews, features, reviews, columns and editorials.

A news article is the most important article type in journalism. Its purpose is to convey information by answering the questions of what, where, when, how, why and who as neutrally and objectively as possible. The purpose of news is to tell people what has happened.

The form of a news article is highly standardised and regularly referred to as a downward-facing triangle structure. The most important information is located at the beginning of the news article and, from there onwards, less and less important background information is provided. The style has become so standard, that the last chapter or chapters of a news article can be removed during the layout without it hampering the ease of understanding the article. The most important message in a news article is called a news lead. It is a brief, concise description of the article’s content.

The most important message in a news article is called a news lead.

In its simplest form, an interview can be in a question-answer format, where both the reporter’s questions and the interviewee’s answers are quoted directly.

A feature article is a longer article type than a news article. A feature should be fact-based, objective and accurate, but the genre also allows for more creative expression than a news article. While containing elements of news, feature writing provides scope, depth, and interpretation of trends, events, topics or people. It aims to humanise, add colour, educate, entertain and illuminate. Types of features can be, for example, news features on a topical phenomenon including the use of several independent sources, profiles and reportages.

A feature should be fact-based, objective and accurate, but the genre also allows more creative expression than a news article.

Columns, editorials and reviews are even more subjective article types than features. They can and usually do include openly personal opinions from the writer. Nevertheless, a good review not only presents the critic’s opinions, but the critic’s expertise is put into practice, for example to analyse a piece of art or culture and place it in a larger context or tradition. Likewise, a good column is not just a rant composed of the writer’s thoughts but a well justified argument on a topical issue.

Article types and genres: A Summary

Article types of journalism include

Journalism genres include

Reflection: Please come up with short descriptions of the concepts above. Can you name more article types or genres?

Keep Reading:

The journalistic work process ;  Data Journalism & Infographics Or go back to the beginning of this section: Journalism

This article was updated on January 8th 2020

newspaper articles and scientific genres

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Popular science articles

Chapter 2. popularisation: background and definitions, 2.3 scientific writing genres, 2.3.4 popular science articles.

Science is reported in the media by science journalists and scientists themselves. Scientists contest the way the media report science news for several reasons, but mainly because the media emphasise the “sensationalization” of scientific events and discoveries. Such a focus

affects the accuracy of information and leads to misreporting scientific results and findings. It has been argued that such a biased reporting of science can mislead the general public and generate negative feelings and actions/reactions toward scientific issues (Maillé et al., 2009).

Maillé et al., (2009) report that journalistic reports of science are characterised by inaccuracy in reporting scientific cases. This is thought to be engendered by the time constraints media journalists face. According to Maillé et al., (2009), in media reports of science, journalists omit methodology, which is considered as a central part of scientific research by scientists and hence, is a source of disappointment and disapproval not to say condemnation of the way the media report scientific issues. Nowadays, science journalists are increasingly aware of challenges that arise when reporting science in media, and how it can mislead public opinion about different scientific issues. In an interview2, Ben Goldacre, a qualified medical doctor and reporter for the Guardian, talks about sensationalised reporting of science and gives an example of how journalists misrepresent science by manipulating data in order to write their stories. Another example is a study conducted by Social Market Foundation (SMF), about the reasons that led to the reduction of MMR vaccines being administered. Ann Rossister, director of SMF, is quoted saying:

The public's inherent mistrust of government and its motives is exacerbated by the media's sensationalist treatment of scientific stories (…) such misreporting can have fatal consequences: in 1998, the Daily Mail devoted some 700 stories to MMR creating the erroneous impression that the vaccine was dangerous. Following this, the number of people being inoculated against MMR fell by 20%, increasing the danger of these life-threatening diseases (BBC, 2006)3 .

These examples demonstrate that the task of writing science for a general audience can be a real challenge and can sometimes have negative consequences. However, the role of media in popularising science cannot always be perceived negatively. Miller (2009) argues that the media report not only scientific knowledge that is validated by the scientific community but also presents new discoveries and new knowledge that may be still in

2 The full video is available at http://www.knowtex.com/posts/sensationalised-science- reporting_3729/comments [Last accessed 22/10/2014].

3 BBC news, ‘Media sensationalising science’, 3 March 2006, (available at

debate in scientific circles. In the case of controversial issues such as genetically modified molecules and the effect of greenhouse gases, popular science articles can become an arena for scientific debate where both scientists and public interact. Calsamiglia and Van Dijk (2004) explore the role media in broadcasting a new image of science where “old” knowledge interact with “new” knowledge. The two others investigate various discursive strategies implemented to make specialised knowledge accessible to public taking into consideration the constraint of the newspaper as a medium. They have identified various strategies of explanation, among which metaphor (2004:370).

In addition to media articles about science, there is another kind of reporting science to a general audience, which is popular science magazines. Magazines such as Scientific American are devoted to scientific issues and target an “educated readership with an interest in science” (Olohan: 2016:174). Some scholars such as Rey (2000, 2007) and Rey and Tricás (2006) argue that the targeted audience has more than interest in science and is more an audience with some level of specialisation. Rey (2007), for instance, argues that Scientific American magazine belongs to what she calls “articles de semi-vulgarisation” that are midway between research articles and media articles about science. However, the view where popular science articles are seen as written by scientists addressing a heterogeneous audience of non-specialist readers is generally accepted. By “non- specialised reader”, it is meant, readers who are not specialists in the field being popularised. Specialists from other fields other than the one being popularised can also be included in this description.

Compared to media articles about science, popular science articles published in magazines can be said to be more reliable regarding their contents. This might be because they address an audience with a certain level of scientific awareness. It can also be argued that journalists and scientists publishing in magazines do not have to contend with the time and the space constraints as journalists when publishing in newspapers, as the magazines are published periodically and not daily. Their content is also devoted to scientific issues and not ‘diluted’ in a mass of other news.

Yarden (2009) compares scientific texts to popular science texts and educational texts (textbooks) and argues that while scientific texts are primarily expository and

argumentative, popular science texts are hybrid: expository, narrative and argumentative at the same time.

In the case of Astronomy and Astrophysics, there are few reports in the media about current research in this field apart from the news related to particular events. The way in which Astronomy and Astrophysics are popularised by researchers working in the field is either in the form of popular astronomy books or science fiction novels or magazines such as Scientific American that is translated into several languages. Astronomy & Astrophysics as a field is also argued to have a special role in the public communication of science as it acts as a “science catcher” (Madsen, 2003). It attracts the interest of large audiences as it is linked to different scientific disciplines: mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, atmosphere sciences and biology and different technological applications like optics and remote sensing. Astronomy & Astrophysics is also linked to the humanities; its subject is shared with philosophy and religion. It is also the subject of interest of some pseudo- sciences (astrology is an example). Fiction, which has space and the universe as its subject, is also used successfully as a means of science communication (Madsen and West 2000). It is also worth mentioning that the dissemination of astronomy and astrophysics as well as other scientific fields is done in a global context where English is not only the global lingual lingua franca of science communication but is also adopted as a global corporate lingua franca (Blenkinsopp and Shademan Pajouh, 2010). Scientific content is first produced in English and then disseminated into other languages mainly via translation (Mary Snell- Hornby, 2000; O’hagan and Ashworth, 2002

Few researchers have highlighted the role of similes and metaphors in popular science articles, especially in highly abstract scientific fields such as A&A despite the key role they play in explaining scientific concepts as will be seen in the next chapter.

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newspaper articles and scientific genres

Lit Trivia: How Many Science Fiction and Fantasy Trilogies Do You Know?

There’s nothing like a good three-book series to get you deep into new worlds. Try this quiz to see how much you know about popular and recent literary trios.

By J. D. Biersdorfer

newspaper articles and scientific genres

Ensayo invitado

El verdadero peligro inminente de la inteligencia artificial.

Estamos tan preocupados preguntándonos qué puede hacer la tecnología que estamos eludiendo las preguntas más importantes.

By Ezra Klein

The Imminent Danger of A.I. Is One We’re Not Talking About

We are so stuck on asking what the technology can do that we are missing the more important questions.

newspaper articles and scientific genres

Inside the Minds of Spiders, Octopuses and Artificial Intelligence

The science fiction writer Adrian Tchaikovsky explores what an explosion of A.I.-produced content would mean for human society and the human spirit.

By ‘The Ezra Klein Show’

newspaper articles and scientific genres

Science Fiction Magazines Battle a Flood of Chatbot-Generated Stories

While the deluge has become a nuisance, the stories are easy to spot. The writing is “bad in spectacular ways,” one editor said.

By Michael Levenson

newspaper articles and scientific genres

‘The Wandering Earth II’ Review: It Wanders Too Far

The audacious sequel to Frant Gwo’s 2019 sci-fi blockbuster follows survivors working to avert planetary disaster, but it loses much of the glee of its predecessor.

By Brandon Yu

newspaper articles and scientific genres

‘M3GAN’ Makes Us Ask (Again): Who’s Afraid of Dancing Robots?

In the movie “M3GAN,” a robot doll’s sinister virtuosity plays on the mixture of amusement and deep unease that dancing robots often provoke.

By Margaret Fuhrer

newspaper articles and scientific genres

The Best Genre Movies of 2022

We look at the best in horror, science fiction, action and international films, all available to stream.

By Elisabeth Vincentelli, Erik Piepenburg, Robert Daniels and Devika Girish

newspaper articles and scientific genres

The Best Science Fiction and Fantasy of 2022

Pandemics, witchcraft, terrifying A.I.: speculative fiction that stood out in 2022.

By Amal El-Mohtar

newspaper articles and scientific genres

Inside the best-seller list

Write every day tracy deonn recommends thinking instead..

Before she put pen to paper — or fingers to keyboard — this fantasy novelist spent a long time getting to know her protagonist.

By Elisabeth Egan

University of North Florida

Article Types: What's the Difference Between Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals?

What Does it Mean?

Article : Much shorter than a book, an article can be as short as a paragraph or two or as long as several dozen pages. Articles can address any topic that the author decides to explore and can reflect opinion, news, research, reviews, instruction, nearly any focus. Articles appear in newspapers, magazines, trade publication, journals, and even in books. Because of their relative brevity, articles typically are used to provide up-to-date information on a wide variety of topics.

Book Review : A usually brief article that provides an evaluation and appreciation of a book. A review might assess the importance of a book's contributions to a particular field of study or might make recommendations to potential readers of the book. Reviews of fiction will usually comment on originality, style, and readability. While an important tool for helping a researcher assess the value of a book to his or her research topic, a book review, by itself, is usually not sufficient for use as a source in a research project.

Issue : A single, regular publication of a journal, magazine, newspaper, newsletter, or trade publication. A magazine or journal that publishes monthly will have twelve issues in a year. News magazines like Time and Newsweek publish weekly and will have 52 issues in a year. Newspapers might publish daily or weekly. A daily will have 365 issues in a year. Issues are usually numbered, so a journal that publishes twelve issues in a year starting with January will number each issue sequentially (issue 1, January; issue 2, February; issue 3, March; etc.).

Journal : A regularly published collection of articles that focus on topics specific to a particular academic discipline or profession. Journals might be published monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or even annually. Probably the most common publication frequency is monthly and quarterly. Journal articles are typically of substantial length (often more than 10 pages) and usually reflect research, whether it be surveys of existing research or discussions of original research. Most journal articles will be prefaced with an abstract and will include extensive documentation within the article or at the end of the article. Most research begins with a survey of existing literature on a topic and proceeds with the development of new ideas or new research into a topic. Articles are usually written by experts in their fields, although journals might also publish letters from their readership commenting on articles that have been published in previous issues. Journals might also include opinion articles or editorials. Examples of journals include Journal of the American Medical Association, American Sociological Review, Psychological Reports, Publications of the Modern Language Association, Educational Research Quarterly, and Evolutionary Biology.

Literature Review : An important part of nearly any research project, a literature review consists of a survey of previously published or non-published materials that focus on a particular subject under investigation. For example, a researcher looking into whether there is a relationship between musical aptitude and academic achievement in elementary age students would begin by looking for articles, books, and other materials that reflected previous research into this topic. The function of the review is to identify what is already known about the topic and to provide a knowledge foundation for the current study.

Magazine : A regularly published collection of articles that might focus on any topic in general or on topics of interest to a specific group, such as sports fans or music fans or home decorators. Magazines might be published weekly, monthly, semi-monthly or only several times a year. More commonly, magazines are published weekly or monthly. Articles in magazines are typically written for the general reading public and don't reflect in-depth research (an exception might be an investigative report written in a news magazine that involved weeks or months of research and interviews to complete). Most magazine articles do not list references and are written by the magazine's own staff writers. In general, magazine articles are easy to read, are fairly brief in length, and may include illustrations or photographs. Magazines also rely heavily on advertisements targeted to consumers as a source of revenue. Examples of magazines include Time, Newsweek, Rolling Stone, Popular Mechanics, Car and Driver, Interview, Good Housekeeping, Elle, GQ, and Sports Illustrated.

Newsletter : A regularly published collection of brief news articles of interest to members of a particular community. Professional associations might issue newsletters to keep their membership up to date. Businesses and schools might issue newsletters to keep their constituents up to date. Nearly any type of organization or society might have its own newsletter. Articles in newsletters are typically brief, and the entire newsletter itself might be only half a dozen pages in length. These are usually internal publications that have interest mainly to people who participate in the activities of the issuing body. They are frequently used to inform members of an organization of upcoming events. Examples of newsletters include 401(k) Advisor, Adult Day Services Letter, Black History News & Notes, Credit Card Weekly, Education Business Weekly, Music Critics Association Newsletter, and Student Aid News.

Newspaper : A regularly published collection of fairly brief articles that provide updates on current events and interests. Newspapers are generally published daily, weekly, and bi-weekly, although they may have less regular publication schedules. Most major newspapers publish daily, with expanded coverage on the weekends. Newspapers can be national or international in focus or might be targeted strictly to a particular community or locality. Newspaper articles are written largely by newspaper staff and editors and often do not provide authors' names. Many of the articles appearing in national, international, and regional papers are written by various wire service writers and are nationally or internationally syndicated. Examples of wire services are Reuters and the Associated Press. Newspapers rely on advertising for a part of their income and might also include photographs and even full color illustrations of photos. A common feature of most newspapers is its editorial page, where the editors express opinions on timely topics and invite their readers to submit their opinions. Examples of newspapers include New York Times, Times of London, Florida Times-Union, Tampa Tribune, Denver Post, Guardian, and USA Today.

Peer Reviewed/Refereed Journal : Most academic/scholarly journals use subject experts or "peers" to review articles being considered for publication. Reviewers will carefully examine articles to ensure that they meet journal criteria for subject matter and style. The process ensures that articles are appropriate to a particular journal and that they are of the highest quality.

Trade Journal : A regularly published collection of articles that address topics of interest to members of a particular profession, such as law enforcement or advertising or banking. Articles tend to be brief and often report on developments and news within a field and might summarize current research being done in a particular area. Trade journals might also include editorials, letters to the editor, photo essays, and advertisements that target members of the profession. While trade journal articles might include references, the reference lists tend to be brief and don't reflect thorough reviews of the literature. Articles are usually written with the particular profession in mind, but are generally pretty accessible so that a person wishing to learn more about the profession would still be able to understand the articles. Examples of trade journals include Police Chief, Education Digest, Energy Weekly News, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Engineering News Record, Design News, and Traffic World.

Volume : Most journals and many magazines, newsletters, newspapers, and trade publications assign volume numbers to a year's worth or half a year's worth of issues. For example, a journal that publishes four times a year (quarterly) might assign each yearly collection of four issues a volume number to help identify which issues of the journal were published during a particular year. Publications that publish more frequently than monthly might also assign volume numbers, but they might change volume numbers mid year, so that there may be two volumes in any one publishing year.


By Genre: Scientific in the " Scientific " genre   x

newspaper articles and scientific genres

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21 Different Types of Articles

Posted on Published: August 26, 2018  - Last updated: October 24, 2018

21 Different Types of Articles

If you’re an intelligent reader or simply run a content marketing site and want to attract intelligent readers, knowing about the different types of articles will be worthwhile. The world is a fodder for an infinite source of topics and so the sky literally is the limit when it comes to finding new sources to read either for information or entertainment.

Read on for more ideas about the different types of articles and how to differentiate a long article from a short article.

Basic Types of Articles

Book review articles.

A man is in the process of reading a book to make a review article about it.

Published mostly in academic journals, book reviews provide expert and professional opinions and insights on scholarly books that have recently been published. These are short articles that are not very time consuming to read. One of the main advantages to a writer participating in book review articles is that it allows the author to stay up to date on the newest and most popular books, and of course, the experience gleaned can be added to the writer’s resume and list of experiences.

Clinical Case Studies

A doctor is preparing his clinical case study article with his colleague.

These articles describe, in detail, real patient cases from either a clinical or medical practice. Each of the cases presented are cases that significantly contribute to any existing knowledge in that particular field. Most of these studies discuss the symptoms, diagnosis, signs, and of course, treatment of a specific disease, and they are considered primary literature. Clinical case studies have word counts that are very close to the original article, and because they deal with so much technical and industry-specific information, they are not meant for beginning writers.

Clinical Trial Articles

Doctors are writing their clinical study trial articles about certain findings.

These articles, like clinical case studies, are specifically related to the field of medicine. They describe the implementation, results, and methodology of controlled clinical studies, most of which are conducted on large groups of patients. Clinical trial articles are very long; in fact, their length is usually roughly the same as the original research article. To write clinical trial articles, the writer has to offer expert reliability, high standards of ethics, and a lot of practical work experience, as the articles are usually not written by beginning writers.

Newspaper columns fill up a daily newspaper.

A column highlights the personality of the author, which allows that author to write about subjects using a unique, one-of-a-kind style. Most columnists use one of several approaches to personalize their columns, including humor or expertise in a certain topic or subject area. It is a necessity for column writers to develop their own style so that it eventually becomes recognizable by the readership.

Columnists write about their own personal thoughts or experiences, and they can even interpret various issues or events if they wish. With each column, the writers’ style comes through so that it is always a little different than the next columnist. Most columns are published once a week, and they are long enough for the writers to go into detail with whatever they are writing about.

Commentary/Perspective/Opinion Articles

Commentary article

These articles fall in the same category because they have a lot in common with one another, but they do differ slightly in the following respects:

Commentaries are usually short articles that consist of 1,000 to 1,500 words, and they draw attention to, or critique a book, report, or article that is already published. Commentaries explain why the article or book interested the writer and why it might be attention grabbing for the reader as well.

Perspective articles are scholarly reviews that are written about prevalent ideas or fundamental concepts in a specific field of interest. Usually written in essay form, perspective articles consist of a personal point of view that critiques popular notions about a particular field. They can be reviews of a few concepts related to one another or even a single concept. Considered secondary literature, perspective pieces are usually very short, consisting of approximately 2,000 words.

Opinion articles are just as they sound – they consist only of the author’s viewpoint on a particular study’s interpretation, methods, or analysis. The author can comment on the strengths and weaknesses of a certain hypothesis or theory, and the articles are usually both backed by sound evidence and based on constructive criticism. Opinion articles are great for promoting the discussion of the most recent issues relating to science, and they, too, are relatively short in length.

A students hands over an essay to his professor.

These are some of the shortest articles written, from short to medium in length, and they describe an opinion or personal experience of the author. Most essay writers concentrate on presenting their specific views on a topic and center the essay on just one specific subject.

Feature Writing Articles

Feature articles are in-depth articles that go into great detail about events, topics, trends, or even people. Their goal is to thoroughly explore the topic with interviews and the use of experts or with even the main people involved. They also aim to show a previously unseen perspective on the topic. The main goal of feature articles is to provide enough detail so that the readers or viewers are familiar with every aspect of the story, and it is this type of article that usually wins the most prestigious journalism awards. They also have the highest word count as compared to all of the other types of articles.

Freelance Writing Articles

A freelance writer is working on his articles in a coffeeshop.

A freelance writer is a writer who doesn’t work for a particular company or publication but instead hires out his or her services to various organizations which can be physically located almost anywhere. Most freelance writers are professional writers who take on different jobs for a short time, although they work for themselves and are not considered the permanent employee of any one company.

Freelance writers accept their pay from whoever needs the article written, and even though the writing can be technical or creative, the assignment is always a short-term commitment for the writer. Technical articles are usually specifically asked for by the company doing the hiring, while creative articles are usually written first by the freelancer then later sold to various publications. Freelance articles can include:

More information on freelance writers and what it takes to be one can be found here.

How-To Articles

How-to articles are very specific and describe in great detail steps or tips to help the reader do something specific. If you’ve ever read through a recipe, you’ve experienced a great how-to article. Most how-to articles include solutions to problems or answers to certain questions, and they can include everything from showing you how to reload a grocery store price gun to how to connect a game system to your television set. If it describes specifically how to do something and contains numbers or bullet points, it is likely a how-to article.

Investigative Articles

An investigative article about cyber attack.

Considered one of the most exciting types of writing to many people, investigative journalism consists of jobs that aim to uncover the truth about a specific person, event, or subject. It is based on the principle that the final results should be well verified and extremely accurate, not to mention filled with facts only. This can be difficult when you are an investigative journalist because many of the people you are working with are naturally going to be uncooperative or even hostile to the work you’re trying to do.

It can be difficult to get the information you need to get the right results, but it can break a certain situation wide open if you’re successful in the end. One of the most important investigative journalism pieces ever written is the uncovering of the Watergate scandal by investigative reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. Investigative journalism can cause an uproar in the public but making sure their readers and viewers know what is really going on is something all investigative journalists strive for when doing their work.

Letters to the Editor

These are actual letters written by the readers of a certain publication and therefore, their topics can include almost anything. Most newspapers consider these letters very important because they give the editors a great idea of how their readers feel about certain topics.

Most editors try to obtain a balance when choosing which letters to print, although some smaller newspapers print every letter they receive. Even people unfamiliar with various writing styles can write a simple letter to the editor, and most editors and professional writers feel that for every letter they receive that expresses a certain opinion, there are dozens or even hundreds more people who feel the same way.

Lifestyle Articles

A writer is pondering about his next lifestyle article topic.

Although the topics can vary greatly, lifestyle articles focus on issues related to one’s lifestyle. This can include everything from recreation to health and relationships to real-life interviews, and they can even include statistics if you like. Examples include describing some of the most popular restaurants in town, local options for private schools, how to use the new walking path that was just installed in your city, and dozens of other topics. With lifestyle articles, the more personalized and local the information, the better the chance that it will be read by a lot of people.

News Articles

If you watch the news every day, you’ll notice that this form of writing is very fact filled and straightforward. News articles have to be written without bias or personal interpretations by the reporters themselves. A news story is not a feature story, because it is short, to the point, and consists only of a headline and enough of an explanation to pique the readers’ or viewers’ interest.

It provides just enough information so that the reader or viewer learns what happened from the storyline and nothing else. News articles are there to relay events, basic information, and facts in an accurate, unbiased, and straightforward way. They are not there to go into a lot of detail on the story, but only to provide the basics so that the reader or viewer gets enough information to know what is going on and nothing else.

Op-Ed Articles

Short for opposite the editorial, op-ed articles are merely an opinion by the writer. Found mostly in newspapers, op-ed articles are so named because they are published on the page which is opposite an editorial. Most often, they are published by the local newspaper of the author, and they can include opinions on everything from small-town issues to major national or international stories.

As a general rule, op-ed articles offer an alternate opinion from the other editorials, and they are almost always written by someone who is an expert in that industry. Op-eds educate people about a specific issue and go into more detail than what major media outlets are offering. In other words, op-ed articles present another view from the ones already expressed in a certain publication, and they are attempts to give the publication a little more balance in the end.

Op-ed articles can help build up the image of the publication that printed them, and they can be about any type of social or political issue that is currently on everyone’s mind. They are written by experts and not writers with no knowledge of the subject area, and the specific publication will dictate the style and word count necessary to be published, although most tend to be roughly 600 words in length. In addition, op-ed articles are usually written by freelance writers and not writers hired by the publication.

Original Research Articles

Original research articles are very detailed studies that report the original research. Considered primary literature, original research articles include the background study, methods, hypothesis, results, and the interpretation of the findings, as well as a discussion of the possible implications. These articles are quite long and require an extensive investment of time. They are usually from 3,000 to 6,000 words, although for some journals the word count can be as high as 12,000.

Personality Profile Articles

If you’ve ever read an article in People magazine, you’ve read a personality profile article. These articles revolve around that interviewee’s life accomplishments and are based on an interview with that person. The articles are in-depth and look at the person’s entire life, starting at the beginning. They almost always include quirks, faults, significant events, strengths, character, and of course, their accomplishments. Personality profiles are informative but casual, and they are always a very interesting read.

Question-and-Answer Articles

A question and answer article is about to be written after this interview.

These are articles based on an interview . The difference between this and other types of articles is that a question-and-answer article does not analyze a story or build a story around the answers from the interviewee. The interviewer asks questions, then writes down the answers that are received, so it isn’t an opinion piece, but instead centers on facts. Question-and-answer articles have introductory or lead paragraphs, but the bulk of the article consists of the questions and answers discussed at the interview.

Review Articles

Review articles can be written about movies.

Reviews are part fact based and part opinion and they are there to review certain subjects. If you’ve ever read a movie or book review, you know what a review article does. Review articles work hard to accomplish two things: first, they accurately and thoroughly identify and describe the subject that is being reviewed; and second, they use experience and research to provide an informed and intelligent opinion of that subject. Review articles are not simply spewing out an opinion of what you like or dislike about the item being reviewed. They are well thought out and concise, and always utilize a certain amount of research so that the review is thoughtful and comprehensive, giving the reader or viewer an accurate representation of the subject that was reviewed.

Review articles present a constructive and critical analysis of existing literature, accomplished through analysis, comparison, and summary. They can identify specific problems or gaps and can even provide recommendations for research in the future. Considered secondary literature, the articles usually present no new data, and they consist of three main types: systematic reviews, which are usually under 10,000 words long; meta-analyses, and literature reviews, both of which can range anywhere from 8,000 to 40,000 words. However, each publication has its own requirements for word counts, so the writer should always consult with the publication itself before beginning the article.

Like the name suggests, shorts are no more than 500 words long and usually focus on a specific publication’s target market. If the magazine you’re writing for has a health-and-fitness section, for example, you may be in charge of writing a short article on a topic that applies to this section. Shorts can center on any topic, but the topic is dictated by the type of publication you’re writing for, and they can be as short as 150 words or as long as 500 words.

Sponsored Content Articles

Sponsored content articles are, in essence, a type of advertising. They look and read like regular editorials, but they are paid for by a specific advertiser and therefore, their intent is to promote the product or service of the advertiser. For instance, a car dealership may buy a one-page editorial that describes various aspects of road travel. Naturally, the advertiser is always mentioned somewhere in the article, because this is the main point of the article. Also known as “native advertising,” sponsored content articles are usually written by on-staff writers instead of freelancers because these writers tend to be more familiar with the publication’s advertisers.

Trend Articles

Trend articles showcase a movement that either decreases or increases over time. Examples include housing prices, couples that get divorced, the number of people playing a certain video game, or even the number of people buying the latest cars or sunglasses. Trends go up and down, and articles based on trends highlight that up-and-down movement during any given period of time.

The Difference Between Basic Types of Articles

Long articles.

Long articles usually range from 700 to 3,000 words in length, and the writing style is similar to that for books. Long articles can handle more complex subject areas and are meant for people at the eighth- or tenth-grade reading level. If you know your subject matter well, long articles are best because you are able to present a lot of information on that particular subject area. Because of today’s high exposure to technology and lower levels of literacy among the public, long articles need to be simple and must adjust to the needs of the reader if you want them to communicate successfully.

As a general rule, you should include both a title and one or more subtitles, with the latter being spaced roughly every 500 to 700 words. This takes a bit of preplanning, but it keeps the reader interested in the article until the very end, which of course is your ultimate goal.

Short Articles

Short articles are almost always between 500 and 700 words long, and they are usually written similar to how blogs are written. Short articles focus on only one subject or point and usually contain three- to five-sentence paragraphs that keep the reader’s attention. If you’re used to writing seven to ten sentences in each paragraph, you are better off writing long articles.

Unlike long articles, short articles are best for subject areas that you are not an expert in, and they are always simple in both content and language. Most short articles are written for people that read at a fourth-grade level. Because of this, when you’re writing your short article, picture yourself explaining something to a nine-year-old. If a nine-year-old can understand your short article, you have found the perfect language for it.

In addition, always make your short articles articulate and to the point. Keep the subject matter both simplified and focused, and keep in mind that it should be easy to understand, regardless of who the audience members are. Write in short paragraphs and not long sentences, and consider the article one that has various tidbits of information throughout it.

If you’re writing an article for a newspaper or magazine, it will require a style that is a little different than writing for a blog or website. Most publications and sites, however, will lay out in specific detail all of the information you need to know before you start writing. Because of this, you’ll know before you write the first word which style they want you to use and how many words need to be in the article. Writing both short and long articles is easier the more you do it, and the publication hiring you will make sure everything is clear before you start writing for them.

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newspaper articles and scientific genres

Joni M. Fisher

Award winning author, types of articles.

by admin | Jul 27, 2015 | Craft of Writing , Journalism | 2 comments

Editors categorize articles by type, so it helps to know these types by name so you speak the same language as the editor. The types are: Hard News, First Person Article, Opinion Piece, Informational or Service Piece, How-To Article, Personality Profile, and Think Piece. Since most Hard News articles are assigned to full-time staff, we will skip this type of article. Let’s examine the characteristics and differences of the remaining types of articles for freelancers to use to break into the market.


First person articles come from personal experience and are traditionally written in first person. They can be sold as feature articles or as essays, depending on their length and newsworthiness. Characteristics of a first person article with high market value:

  • 750-1500 words
  • setting-specific sensory details (taste, touch, smell, sight, sound), history
  • characters are vivid, newsworthy, memorable, interesting, odd
  • dialogue clearly reveals the unique character of the author
  • details a turning point-realization, discovery, or change in one’s life
  • voice is fresh, audacious, trustworthy, accurate, funny, or full of attitude
  • states its purpose in first line or paragraph to hook the reader. Example: I had to teach my child to rebel and to question authority for his own safety.

Sources of first person articles and essays: Memory What unusual, unique experience or perspective can you offer? How did this event affect you? What recently triggered this memory? How can you relate your experience to others? Skill/talent Do I have a skill or talent that isn’t common or do I lack a skill everyone else seems to have? Examples: a male nanny, a woman pilot. The art of doing something well sets the skilled above the rest and this essay will explore the tell-tale signs that separate the novice from the expert. Or it could go the Dave Barry route, as a humorist who commentated on the Olympics, and show a klutz attempting something far out of his league. Comparison Why does everyone (speak Spanish, wear a size 5, whatever) but me? If only I had known then what I know now…. Compare the before and after of an experience, training, or change. Opinion Take a topic or event in the news and present the unpopular or neglected point of view. Example: Why does the media accept male bashing as funny but would scream like monkeys if the same joke were aimed at women? What makes you mad? What makes you laugh? What do you value? Dig deep to explore your answer. The reasons for your particular opinion need to be anchored and detailed from your personal experience. Are you an expert on this topic? Get to the WHY factor of your opinion on the topic. Observation Trends, behaviors, fashions. Go non-politically correct in the politically correct world. Go against type. See from a new perspective. Example: What happened when I took my daughter to a hockey game when neither of us understood the sport. What details capture the subject? What is the first impression? The second? My all-time favorite first-person article is Rick Reilly’s “On a Wing and a Prayer” that appeared in Sports Illustrated . In it he describes his thrill ride in an F-14 Tomcat. I double dare you not to laugh as this civilian, non-pilot describes his ride. Take a few minutes to read this masterpiece by clicking on his name above. To get ideas for essay and first person articles, try this exercise: write as quickly as possible at least 5 things you do well, 5 things you have strong opinions on and 5 memories from childhood. Pick something from this list and write. Now. The following example sources buy First Person Articles from new writers: The Christian Science Monitor seeks “upbeat, personal essays from 300 to 900 words” and pays $75-$160 on publication. Aim for humor and heartfelt personal stories. See their guidelines: http://www.csmonitor.com/aboutus/guidelines and read online archives for their tone and subject matter. Underwired is a website that seeks women’s personal essays of 800-1200 words. See their monthly themes so your submission suits the theme. They pay $100 per essay. See their guidelines: http://uwmag.com .


An Opinion Piece or opinion essay is less personal than the First Person Article, but the piece still needs a tight focus. Writing about an entire industry will not set your writing apart from the bulk of writing on the topic. Find your niche, your sub-category. Narrow your focus by asking the journalistic questions: Who, What, When, Where, Why and How? To that, I add one more question that my editor in college always asked—“Who cares?” If the topic is interesting only to you, don’t expect editors to mail you a contract. Look at your essay or article from the reader’s point of view. The main question in the reader’s mind is—why are you qualified to render an opinion? We all have opinions, but why should anyone read yours? If you’re an expert on this topic, be sure to state it up front for the reader. Let’s say you want to write an opinion piece on weight problems in America. Are you a dietitian? A physician? An athletic coach? A chronic dieter who has tried all the fad diets? Give your opinion the weight it deserves by showing your credentials. If you plan to write often on a particular topic, and build a readership, consider syndication. Essayists can become syndicated and sell their work in multiple newspapers. Whether you write etiquette advice like Miss Manners, humor like Dave Barry, or political analysis like Charles Krauthammer, syndication means you write one essay per week and collect checks from multiple sources. The key is to find your true topic and voice and spread the word. Though Pulitzer-Prize winning humorist Dave Barry was employed by the Miami Herald , his essays were published simultaneously in newspapers around the country because the papers did not have competing readership. Perhaps in time, blogs will replace syndication, but many writers continue to profit from syndication in print media. It takes time to build a readership or following, but syndication multiplies the income you receive from every piece you write. Among the highest paying markets for individual essays and opinion pieces are:

  • Contests. There are a few online directories of contests. Here is one: Poets & Writers
  • The Smithsonian’s last page. ( Quirky contemporary culture.) You have to read back issues to understand what they buy.


An informational or service piece builds the reader’s knowledge on a specific subject. Always interview an expert or two to get a broader view of the subject. Consumer Reports magazine, for example, is all about comparing different brands of a product so the buyer can understand which features are available and how to price each feature. Which features are gimmicks? Which ones make the product valuable in the short run, in the long run? Consider writing for industry specific publications or publications devoted to a specific organization, club or group. Many of these smaller publications yearn for writers. They might not pay as well as the national magazines, but they can help you build readership and clips. Clips are basically examples of your published work. Start a file of them. Characteristics of an Information or Service Piece:

  • Tend to be fact-driven and educational.
  • Present quotes from experts. If controversial, present experts from opposing views.
  • Inform readers about things that will affect their lives. This series is Informational—“10 Things You Need to Know About Writing for Magazines”.
  • Show a fact or trend.
  • Dispel rumors and misunderstandings.
  • Revisit history with a then/now comparison.
  • Have catchy titles like: Myths about ___. Secrets of ___. An Insider’s View of ___. Six Ways to___.

Always relate statistics or any enormous number with an image or put the number in human terms. For example, how can a writer make a number like a billion memorable or describe it in simple, human terms? A billion minutes ago, Jesus was alive. Pick up a copy of Reader’s Digest and just read the titles of the articles. Just so you know, Reader’s Digest pays well, but they buy all rights. This makes reprints impossible and can strangle your ability to write similar articles on the same topic. Lest the gentle reader believe that these types of articles are cut and dried and must forever remain separate entities, please note that the types can be, well, combined, mixed, or crossbred. I published a humor essay “Rocket Mom: Dreaming of the Right Stuff” that presented a comparison between the Space Shuttle and the average SUV in terms of mileage, features, speed and such. The structure of the essay mimicked a service piece, but the tone was purely first person. Here’s the link: https://jonimfisher.com/Rocket-mom/ .


How To Articles present a step-by-step explanation of a process, like wiring a home theatre. An entire series of books is built around the concept of explaining processes and topics to industry outsiders– Electronics For Dummies, SEO For Dummies , etc. Again, if you are an expert or quote an expert, show the reader your credentials.

  • Assume the reader does not speak the special language of the trade or industry.
  • Assume the reader is inexperienced and reads at the high-school level. Even if you write for an adult, educated readership, your readers will come from a variety of backgrounds, and some may read English as a second language. Also, keep in mind that people read comfortably four grades below their last year of formal education.
  • Break your subject into its main points, explaining what each is and how it is accomplished.
  • Note any points of common misunderstanding and mistakes to avoid.
  • Use a breezy, straightforward, conversational tone.
  • Make special terminology clear and memorable. My husband is a surgeon and a pilot, but if he decided to take up sailing, he wouldn’t know his aft from his halyard.
  • Use anecdotes to illustrate points. Some How-To articles organize the steps with acronyms.
  • Include charts, graphs, or artwork to illustrate your points.
  • Narrow the focus of your article and give it an inviting title. Example titles: 7 Ways to improve your skin, 30 Minutes a Day to Ward Off A Heart Attack, or You Can Learn Magic Tricks at Home.

The How To approach can be hysterical when applied to a complex subject. Have you read the book 8 Simple Rules for Dating My Teenage Daughter ? You could also write a How-Not-To article.


A personality profile should balance facts with an interview of subject to show this person’s character and personality and explore public image versus up-close impressions. To be accurate, it also requires interviewing friends, colleagues, family—those who know the person best. What has this person done to merit attention? Is this a future Nobel Laureate? Unsung hero? Political candidate? Sports figure? Nail down why readers would find this person interesting or notable. Be careful about choosing an anti-hero, a criminal will be likely to use publicity for revenge or to attempt to sway public opinion against the facts. Celebrities get jaded and tend to avoid journalists who want to interview them unless they have a new project on the horizon. They will want to deflect attention from themselves and promote their project. They will also tend to avoid unknown interviewers/writers. Say, for example, you want to do a profile on an actor. Rather than focusing on his life in film and television, how about focusing on why he became the spokesman for a charity or why he took up flying as a hobby? People are more open to discussing what they love than who they are.



Superb site you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any community forums that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Bless you!

Joni M

Try http://hiveword.com/wkb/search this is a search site for writer’s websites and groups.

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Scientists have mapped an insect brain in greater detail than ever before, charting a larval fruit fly’s nerve cells and their connections took 12 years.

A diagram showing every nerve cell in a larval fruit fly brain, in all the colors of the rainbow, on a white backdrop

This diagram shows every nerve cell (multicolor) in a larval fruit fly brain, with the spheres representing the cell body and the elongated tails as branches that send and receive information. The connections, known as synapses, aren’t visible here.

Michael Winding

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The wiring of one insect’s brain no longer contains much uncharted territory.

All of the nerve cells — and virtually every connection between them — in a larval fruit fly brain have now been mapped, researchers report in the March 10 Science . It’s the most complex whole brain wiring diagram yet created. 

Previously, just three organisms — a sea squirt and two types of worm — had their brain circuitry fully diagrammed to this resolution. But the brains of those creatures have only a few hundred neurons. The scientists who conducted the new study wanted to understand much more complicated brains.

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Fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) share a wide range of behaviors with humans, including integrating sensory information and learning. Larvae perform nearly all the same actions as adult flies — except for some, like flying and mating — but have smaller brains, making data collection much faster ( SN: 7/19/18 ).

The idea for this project came 12 years ago, says neuroscientist Marta Zlatic of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. At that time, she and her colleagues captured electron microscope images of the entire larval fruit fly brain. They then stitched those images together in a computer and manually traced each neuron to create a 3-D rendering of the cells. Finally, the team found the connections where information gets passed between the cells, and even determined the sending and receiving ends.

The researchers identified more than 3,000 neurons and about 550,000 connections, known as synapses.

Neurons transmit information to one another in circuits. Exploring the neurons’ connectivity patterns — not just directly linked partners, but also the links of linked cells and so on — revealed 93 different types of neurons. The classes were consistent with preexisting groupings characterized by shape and function. And nearly 75 percent of the most well-connected neurons were tied to the brain’s learning center, indicating the importance of learning in animals.

The researchers hope that this work serves as a blueprint for fellow scientists studying brain circuitry. “Now we have a reference map,” Zlatic says.

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Researchers capture early stages of star formation from JWST data

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Researchers capture early stages of star formation from James Webb telescope data

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La Nina, which worsens hurricanes and drought, is gone

WASHINGTON (AP) — After three nasty years, the La Nina weather phenomenon that increases Atlantic hurricane activity and worsens western drought is gone, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said Thursday.

That’s usually good news for the United States and other parts of the world, including drought-stricken northeast Africa, scientists said.

The globe is now in what’s considered a “neutral” condition and probably trending to an El Nino in late summer or fall, said climate scientist Michelle L’Heureux, head of NOAA’s El Nino/La Nina forecast office.

  • – Q&A: La Nina may bring more Atlantic storms, western drought
  • – New atmospheric river storm barrels toward California

“It’s over,” said research scientist Azhar Ehsan, who heads Columbia University’s El Nino/La Nina forecasting. “Mother Nature thought to get rid of this one because it’s enough.”

La Nina is a natural and temporary cooling of parts of the Pacific Ocean that changes weather worldwide. In the United States, because La Nina is connected to more Atlantic storms and deeper droughts and wildfires in the West, La Ninas often are more damaging and expensive than their more famous flip side, El Nino, experts said and studies show.

Generally, American agriculture is more damaged by La Nina than El Nino. If the globe jumps into El Nino it means more rain for the Midwestern corn belt and grains in general and could be beneficial, said Michael Ferrari, chief scientific officer of Climate Alpha, a firm that advises investors on financial decisions based on climate.

When there’s a La Nina, there are more storms in the Atlantic during hurricane season because it removes conditions that suppress storm formation. Neutral or El Nino conditions make it harder for storms to get going, but not impossible, scientists said.

Over the last three years, the U.S. has been hit by 14 hurricanes and tropical storms that caused a billion dollars or more in damage, totalling $252 billion in costs, according to NOAA economist and meteorologist Adam Smith said. La Nina and people building in harm’s way were factors, he said.

Climate change is a major factor in worsening extreme weather, alongside La Nina, scientists said and numerous studies and reports show. Human-caused warming is like an escalator going up: It makes temperatures increase and extremes worse, while La Nina and El Nino are like jumping up and down on the escalator, according to Northern Illinois University atmospheric sciences professor Victor Gensini.

La Nina has also slightly dampened global average temperatures, keeping warming from breaking annual temperature records, while El Nino slightly turbocharges those temperatures often setting records, scientists said.

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La Nina tends to make Western Africa wet, but Eastern Africa, around Somalia, dry. The opposite happens in El Nino with drought-struck Somalia likely to get steady “short rains,” Ehsan said. La Nina has wetter conditions for Indonesia, parts of Australia and the Amazon, but those areas are drier in El Nino, according to NOAA.

El Nino means more heat waves for India and Pakistan and other parts of South Asia and weaker monsoons there, Ehsan said.

This particular La Nina, which started in September 2020 but is considered three years old because it affected three different winters, was unusual and one of the longest on record. It took a brief break in 2021 but came roaring back with record intensity.

“I’m sick of this La Nina,” Ehsan said. L’Heureux agreed, saying she’s ready to talk about something else.

The few other times that there’s been a triple-dip La Nina have come after strong El Ninos and there’s clear physics on why that happens. But that’s not what happened with this La Nina, L’Heureux said. This one didn’t have a strong El Nino before it.

Even though this La Nina has confounded scientists in the past, they say the signs of it leaving are clear: Water in the key part of the central Pacific warmed to a bit more than the threshold for a La Nina in February, the atmosphere showed some changes and along the eastern Pacific near Peru, there’s already El Nino-like warming brewing on the coast, L’Heureux said.

Think of a La Nina or El Nino as something that pushes the weather system from the Pacific with ripple effects worldwide, L’Heureux said. When there are neutral conditions like now, there’s less push from the Pacific. That means other climatic factors, including the long-term warming trend, have more influence in day-to-day weather, she said.

Without an El Nino or La Nina, forecasters have a harder time predicting seasonal weather trends for summer or fall because the Pacific Ocean has such a big footprint in weeks-long forecasts.

El Nino forecasts made in the spring are generally less reliable than ones made other times of year, so scientists are less sure about what will happen next, L’Heureux said. But NOAA’s forecast said there’s a 60% chance that El Nino will take charge come fall.

There’s also a 5% chance that La Nina will return for an unprecedented fourth dip. L’Heureux said she really doesn’t want that but the scientist in her would find that interesting. ___ Follow AP’s climate and environment coverage at https://apnews.com/hub/climate-and-environment ___ Follow Seth Borenstein on Twitter at @borenbears ___ Associated Press climate and environmental coverage receives support from several private foundations. See more about AP’s climate initiative here. The AP is solely responsible for all content.


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