How to Write a Report: A Guide

Matt Ellis

A report is a nonfiction account that presents and/or summarizes the facts about a particular event, topic, or issue. The idea is that people who are unfamiliar with the subject can find everything they need to know from a good report. 

Reports make it easy to catch someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is anything but easy. So to help you understand what to do, below we present a little report of our own, all about report writing. 

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What is a report? 

In technical terms, the definition of a report is pretty vague: any account, spoken or written, of the matters concerning a particular topic. This could refer to anything from a courtroom testimony to a grade schooler’s book report. 

Really, when people talk about “reports,” they’re usually referring to official documents outlining the facts of a topic, typically written by an expert on the subject or someone assigned to investigate it. There are different types of reports, explained in the next section, but they mostly fit this description. 

What kind of information is shared in reports? Although all facts are welcome, reports, in particular, tend to feature these types of content: 

Reports are closely related to essay writing , although there are some clear distinctions. While both rely on facts, essays add the personal opinions and arguments of the authors. Reports typically stick only to the facts, although they may include some of the author’s interpretation of these facts, most likely in the conclusion. 

Moreover, reports are heavily organized, commonly with tables of contents and copious headings and subheadings. This makes it easier for readers to scan reports for the information they’re looking for. Essays, on the other hand, are meant to be read start to finish, not browsed for specific insights. 

Types of reports

There are a few different types of reports, depending on the purpose and to whom you present your report. Here’s a quick list of the common types of reports:

Reports can be further divided into categories based on how they are written. For example, a report could be formal or informal, short or long, and internal or external. In business, a vertical report shares information with people on different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you), while a lateral report is for people on the author’s same level, but in different departments. 

There are as many types of reports as there are writing styles, but in this guide, we focus on academic reports, which tend to be formal and informational. 

>>Read More: What Is Academic Writing?

What is the structure of a report?

The structure of a report depends on the type of report and the requirements of the assignment. While reports can use their own unique structure, most follow this basic template:

If you’re familiar with how to write a research paper , you’ll notice that report writing follows the same introduction-body-conclusion structure, sometimes adding an executive summary. Reports usually have their own additional requirements as well, such as title pages and tables of content, which we explain in the next section. 

What should be included in a report?

There are no firm requirements for what’s included in a report. Every school, company, laboratory, task manager, and teacher can make their own format, depending on their unique needs. In general, though, be on the lookout for these particular requirements—they tend to crop up a lot: 

As always, refer to the assignment for the specific guidelines on each of these. The people who read the report should tell you which style guides or formatting they require. 

How to write a report in 7 steps

Now let’s get into the specifics of how to write a report. Follow the seven steps on report writing below to take you from an idea to a completed paper. 

1 Choose a topic based on the assignment

Before you start writing, you need to pick the topic of your report. Often, the topic is assigned for you, as with most business reports, or predetermined by the nature of your work, as with scientific reports. If that’s the case, you can ignore this step and move on. 

If you’re in charge of choosing your own topic, as with a lot of academic reports, then this is one of the most important steps in the whole writing process. Try to pick a topic that fits these two criteria: 

Of course, don’t forget the instructions of the assignment, including length, so keep those in the back of your head when deciding. 

2 Conduct research

With business and scientific reports, the research is usually your own or provided by the company—although there’s still plenty of digging for external sources in both. 

For academic papers, you’re largely on your own for research, unless you’re required to use class materials. That’s one of the reasons why choosing the right topic is so crucial; you won’t go far if the topic you picked doesn’t have enough available research. 

The key is to search only for reputable sources: official documents, other reports, research papers, case studies, books from respected authors, etc. Feel free to use research cited in other similar reports. You can often find a lot of information online through search engines, but a quick trip to the library can also help in a pinch. 

3 Write a thesis statement

Before you go any further, write a thesis statement to help you conceptualize the main theme of your report. Just like the topic sentence of a paragraph, the thesis statement summarizes the main point of your writing, in this case, the report. 

Once you’ve collected enough research, you should notice some trends and patterns in the information. If these patterns all infer or lead up to a bigger, overarching point, that’s your thesis statement. 

For example, if you were writing a report on the wages of fast-food employees, your thesis might be something like, “Although wages used to be commensurate with living expenses, after years of stagnation they are no longer adequate.” From there, the rest of your report will elaborate on that thesis, with ample evidence and supporting arguments. 

It’s good to include your thesis statement in both the executive summary and introduction of your report, but you still want to figure it out early so you know which direction to go when you work on your outline next. 

4 Prepare an outline

Writing an outline is recommended for all kinds of writing, but it’s especially useful for reports given their emphasis on organization. Because reports are often separated by headings and subheadings, a solid outline makes sure you stay on track while writing without missing anything. 

Really, you should start thinking about your outline during the research phase, when you start to notice patterns and trends. If you’re stuck, try making a list of all the key points, details, and evidence you want to mention. See if you can fit them into general and specific categories, which you can turn into headings and subheadings respectively. 

5 Write a rough draft

Actually writing the rough draft , or first draft, is usually the most time-consuming step. Here’s where you take all the information from your research and put it into words. To avoid getting overwhelmed, simply follow your outline step by step to make sure you don’t accidentally leave out anything. 

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes; that’s the number one rule for writing a rough draft. Expecting your first draft to be perfect adds a lot of pressure. Instead, write in a natural and relaxed way, and worry about the specific details like word choice and correcting mistakes later. That’s what the last two steps are for, anyway. 

6 Revise and edit your report

Once your rough draft is finished, it’s time to go back and start fixing the mistakes you ignored the first time around. (Before you dive right back in, though, it helps to sleep on it to start editing fresh, or at least take a small break to unwind from writing the rough draft.) 

We recommend first rereading your report for any major issues, such as cutting or moving around entire sentences and paragraphs. Sometimes you’ll find your data doesn’t line up, or that you misinterpreted a key piece of evidence. This is the right time to fix the “big picture” mistakes and rewrite any longer sections as needed. 

If you’re unfamiliar with what to look for when editing, you can read our previous guide with some more advanced self-editing tips . 

7 Proofread and check for mistakes

Last, it pays to go over your report one final time, just to optimize your wording and check for grammatical or spelling mistakes. In the previous step you checked for “big picture” mistakes, but here you’re looking for specific, even nitpicky problems. 

A writing assistant like Grammarly flags those issues for you. Grammarly’s free version points out any spelling and grammatical mistakes while you write, with suggestions to improve your writing that you can apply with just one click. The Premium version offers even more advanced features, such as tone adjustments and word choice recommendations for taking your writing to the next level. 

report writing procedure

Descriptive and Prescriptive Reports

Procedure and process reports, explanatory reports.

There are two types of explanatory reports: a Procedure Explanation   (which is a 2 nd Person Instructional Report) , and a Process Explanation . These reports do not give opinions, only the explanation on how to do something or how something is done.

A Procedure Explanation directly tells how to perform the steps, using the second-person you , whereas the Process Explanation explains how the steps are/were performed, using either the first-person I  /  we , or third-person  he / she / it / they .

Procedure Explanation/2 nd Person Instructional Report

As an example, if I were stranded on the interstate with a flat tire and needed to know how to change it, I might call you and you would give me step-by-step instructions that I would need to follow. This would be a Procedure Instructional Explanation, using the  s econd person (understood you):

1.    Open the trunk.

2.    Remove the jack.

Process Explanation

Process Explanations can be classified into three categories: Processes in which people are the agents of the action; Processes in which machines are the agents of the action, and Processes in which nature is the agent of the action.  These reports are referred to as Third Person Instructional Reports.

Processes by People

If I knew you had been stranded on the interstate, I might ask how you fixed your flat tire. You would tell me step-by-step how you did this (using the first person I ), but never expect me to do it.

1.    I opened the trunk.

2.    I removed the jack.

I might ask you how cars are assembled. You would tell me step-by-step how this is done (using the third person, they ), but never expect me to do it.

Processes by Machines

You may need to explain how a fax machine works. You would explain step-by-step how this machine works (using the third person, it ).

Processes by Nature

You may explain beach erosion, explaining the step-by-step process (using the third person, it ).

Note that headings, subheadings, and visuals are important in instructional reports. Procedure reports (2 nd person Instructional reports), will have major steps, followed by a sub steps and markers. Process reports will have headings, subheading, and markers. Both reports will have visuals.

See the following example:

OER Example 2nd Person Instructional Report:

(Note major headings that categorize the steps into 5 major categories, with each major category followed by its steps and sub steps.

How to Write a Report

Last Updated: January 8, 2023 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Emily Listmann, MA and by wikiHow staff writer, Amy Bobinger . Emily Listmann is a private tutor in San Carlos, California. She has worked as a Social Studies Teacher, Curriculum Coordinator, and an SAT Prep Teacher. She received her MA in Education from the Stanford Graduate School of Education in 2014. There are 12 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 42 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 8,467,246 times.

When you’re assigned to write a report, it can seem like an intimidating process. Fortunately, if you pay close attention to the report prompt, choose a subject you like, and give yourself plenty of time to research your topic, you might actually find that it’s not so bad. After you gather your research and organize it into an outline, all that’s left is to write out your paragraphs and proofread your paper before you hand it in!

Sample Reports

report writing procedure

Selecting Your Topic

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Tip: Always get approval from your teacher or boss on the topic you choose before you start working on the report!

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Researching the Report

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Tip: Writing a report can take longer than you think! Don't put off your research until the last minute , or it will be obvious that you didn't put much effort into the assignment.

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Tip: It can help to create your outline on a computer in case you change your mind as you’re moving information around.

Writing the First Draft

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Tip: Assume that your reader knows little to nothing about the subject. Support your facts with plenty of details and include definitions if you use technical terms or jargon in the paper.

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Revising Your Report

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Tip: If you have time before the deadline, set the report aside for a few days . Then, come back and read it again. This can help you catch errors you might otherwise have missed.

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Expert Q&A

Emily Listmann, MA

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About This Article

Emily Listmann, MA

It can seem really hard to write a report, but it will be easier if you choose an original topic that you're passionate about. Once you've got your topic, do some research on it at the library and online, using reputable sources like encyclopedias, scholarly journals, and government websites. Use your research write a thesis statement that sums up the focus of your paper, then organize your notes into an outline that supports that thesis statement. Finally, expand that outline into paragraph form. Read on for tips from our Education co-author on how to format your report! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Report Writing Format

Woman Reading Report in Office

Are you wondering how to write a report? Unlike an essay , which sets out to defend a writer's view about a topic and does not have to feature headings, a report discusses a topic in a structured, easy-to-follow format. Reports are divided into sections with headings and subheadings.

Reports can be academic, technical, or business-oriented, and feature recommendations for specific actions. Reports are written to present facts about a situation, project, or process and will define and analyze the issue at hand. Ultimately, the goal of a report is to relay observations to a specific audience in a clear and concise style. Let's review the proper report writing format so you can craft a professional finished product.

Preparation and Planning

First, you should take some time to prepare and plan for your report. Before you start writing, identify the audience. Your report should be written and tailored to the readers' needs and expectations. When planning, ask yourself several questions to better understand the goal of the report. Some questions to consider include:

Once you identify the basics of your report, you can begin to collect supporting information, then sort and evaluate that information. The next step is to organize your information and begin putting it together in an outline . With proper planning, it will be easier to write your report and stay organized.

Formatting the Report Elements

To keep your report organized and easy to understand, there is a certain format to follow. This report writing format will make it easier for the reader to find what he is looking for. Remember to write all the sections in plain English, except the body, which can be as technical as you need it to be.

The main sections of a standard report are as follows.

If the report is short, the front cover can include any information that you feel is necessary, such as the author(s) and the date prepared. In a longer report, you may want to include a table of contents and a definition of terms.

The summary consists of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations. It needs to be short, as it is a general overview of the report. Some people will read the summary and only skim the report, so make sure you include all of the relevant information. It would be best to write this when the report is finished so you will include everything, even points that might be added at the last minute.


The first page of the report needs to have an introduction. Here you will explain the problem and inform the reader why the report is being made. You need to give a definition of terms if you did not include these in the title section, and explain how the details of the report are arranged.

This is the main section of the report. The previous sections needed to be written in plain English, but this section can include technical terms or jargon from your industry. There should be several sections, each clearly labeled, making it easy for readers to find the information they seek. Information in a report is usually arranged in order of importance with the most important information coming first. Alternatively, you might choose to order your points by complexity or time.

If you wish, this optional section can be included at the end of the main body to go over your findings and their significance.

This is where everything comes together. Keep this section free of jargon as many people will just read the summary and conclusion.


This is where you discuss any actions that need to be taken. In plain English, explain your recommendations, putting them in order of priority.

This includes information that the experts in the field will read. It has all the technical details that support your conclusions.

Report Presentation

You will want to present your report in a simple and concise style that is easy to read and navigate. Readers want to be able to look through a report and get to the information they need as quickly as possible. That way the report has a greater impact on the reader.

There are simple formatting styles that can be used throughout your report that will make it easy to read and look organized and presentable. For example:

Report Writing Style

There are also some writing styles to consider:

Different Types of Reports

While the basics of any report are the same, there are notable differences between academic, business, and technical reports.

First Impressions Count

Reports should be well-organized and easy to follow. To achieve this, following a structured format will keep your writing on track. How a report is presented makes not only a lasting impression but also makes the writer seem more credible and reliable.

A finishing touch to make a great impression on the reader is how you package the report. Always print the final report on good quality paper. You may also want to consider placing the report in a binder or folder. Remember, first impressions always count! And, when it's time to change gears from the formality of a report to a persuasive essay, check out Persuasive Essay Writing Made Easy .

Bit Blog

Report Writing: Steps, Tips & Tools!

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Let’s admit it – no one likes writing reports. After all, you didn’t get into business to write reports, right?

So…is there a way out of this dreadful task of writing reports? 🤔

No, Nope. Nada. Reports are an imminent part of every professional’s life, and things would probably stay the same till the end of time. 🙂

But, is there a way to make report writing EASIER? Yes! Of course!

All you need to do is learn some steps and follow a few tips, and you’ll be on your way to writing great reports. As they say, knowledge is power.

In this blog, we’re going to tell you what exactly a report is and how you can write excellent reports in five easy steps. We’ll also share some powerful tips that will help you write awesome reports. Ready? Let’s go!

What is a Report?

First things first, let’s understand what a report exactly is. A report is a systematic and well-organized document that elaborates on a topic using facts, findings, charts, and graphs.

Every report has a particular purpose and is meant for a specific target audience – whether it is one describing a fundraiser or the number of sales made in the quarter.

A lady reading a report

People often get confused between the terms ‘reports’ and ‘essay’. However, the major difference between the two is that an essay presents arguments and reasoning, whereas a report focuses on FACTS.

In the business world, a solid, comprehensive, and well-thought-out report help in making business decisions and solving problems! Here are some of the elements that a report contains:

Well, now that you know what a report is, let’s get to what you came for – how to write the perfect reports!

Read more:   Proposal Writing: Everything You Need to Know! Home Page CTA

How to Write Solid Reports in 5 Easy Steps?

Step 1. research, research & research.

This is the first and the most crucial step in the report writing process. Even if you’re the master of report writing, you can’t write a good report without doing thorough research on the topic first.

So, dig deep into the topic, scour the depths of the internet, and research as much as you can before starting the report. This might seem like a daunting task, but it would really make the next steps much easier.

Step 2. Prepare the Outline

Now, before actually writing the report, prepare an outline. Basically, write down the headings and subheadings first. These outlines will guide you when you start writing the report.

For example, if your report is on ‘Global Warming’, you can first divide it into four headings: “ What is global warming, what are its causes, what are the effects, and what are the solutions.”

Step 3. Work on the First Draft

It is always, always better to create a draft first. Write down everything that comes to your mind based on the headings and subheadings you have created.

Your draft doesn’t have to be perfect, but it should not be dull and vague either. Remember, this step is supposed to make your report writing process easier, not harder.

Step 4. Write the Final Report

This is the step where you need to spend the MOST effort and time. Go through your draft and start writing your final report – one that’s well structured, organized, and informative.

An employee proofreading his project report

Discuss the findings, recommend the course of action, and write the conclusion in an accurate and professional manner. If you show your expertise on the topic well enough, the reader will trust what you’ve said in the report.

Step 5. Edit, Proofread, Do It Again

Here comes the final step – proofreading. Like we said earlier, a report is a FORMAL document. You can’t risk making stupid spelling mistakes and punctuation errors in a formal document.

No matter how exceptional the content of your report is, if you’ve made silly errors, it would leave a really bad impression on the reader. So, proofread your report as many times as you can before submitting it!

Read more:   Weekly Report: What is it & How to Create it? (Steps & Structure)

3 Tips That Will Help You Write Good Reports

1. know your purpose.

Why are you writing the report? What do you aim to achieve with the report? Who is your target audience? You need to know the answers to all these questions before writing your report.

For instance, if you know that your target audience is the shareholders of the company, you can include a few jargon in the report. But, if the reader is the general public, it’s better to avoid jargon and complex words.

2. Keep it Concise

This is probably the golden rule of report writing – keep it concise. If your report is too long, the reader would bail out on it. But, if you try to keep it too short, you might not be able to get all the information across.

The key is to find the balance. Keep reviewing your report again and again before submitting it, and cut down on all the unnecessary, arbitrary, and fruitless details.

3. Organize your Ideas Clearly

When you’re writing a report, chances are, there are a lot of ideas and thoughts that you need to put forward. That’s a good thing, but just make sure that you organize all these ideas in a clear fashion.

Here’s what you can do: First off, jot down all your ideas on a piece of paper. Then, start organizing these ideas in a way that makes the MOST sense.

A team in a meeting

Good job! You’re now almost a pro at report writing. But, there’s still something left for you to learn: the best tool for creating reports.

You are probably wondering, “Oh, I can just type things out in a Word document or Notepad, and create a report.” Well yes, but would that report be the best it could be? No!

Reports are super important in the business world as well as the academic world, so you need to make sure that you create them using the best tool out there, which is…*drumroll*…

Read more:   How to Write a Client Project Reports that ‘Wow’ them? (Template Included) – The Coolest Platform For Creating Reports & Other Documents Tool for creating reports

Want to know more reasons why you should use Bit for creating your reports? Let’s go!

1. Stunning, Fully Responsive Templates: Whether you want to create a sales report or an annual report- there’s a beautiful template for that on Bit. With over 90 pre-built and fully responsive templates , Bit has turned the painful task of creating reports a walk in the park.

2. Design Automation: Writing reports isn’t easy. It takes so much effort that you end up having no energy to make the report look appealing. Luckily, Bit solves that problem for you with its design automation feature. With just one click, you can change the look of your entire document, its layout, and color too!

3. Interactive Documents:  Bit lets you add PDFs, charts, videos, maps, surveys/polls, charts – basically all kinds of rich media in your document. Right now, there are over 100 rich media embed integrations on Bit! So, why give someone a boring, static report they’ll never open when you could turn it into something much more engaging?

4. Real-Time Collaboration : Reports are important documents, and creating one on your own is a little difficult. That’s why this feature of Bit is the best. Using Bit, you and your team can collaborate on the reports in real-time, no matter where everyone is located. You can co-edit, make inline comments, access version history, chat via document chat, @mentions, and much more!

5. Smart Workspaces : Organizing and managing all your reports can be a pain, but Bit is here to take the pain away. Bit lets you create as many workspaces as you want around different teams and departments, invite guests into the workspace, and manage everything much more efficiently!

6. Tables: It’s better to show all the data and figures in your reports via tables. This way, everyone who reads your report would be able to grasp the complex figures in a quick glance. On Bit, you can create wonderfully designed and fully responsive tables with the click of a button. The colors of these tables automatically change according to the colors of your document’s theme!

Wrapping Up

Report writing is an inevitable part of many disciplines – be it academics or business. You can’t run away from writing reports, so it’s better to master the art and make your lives easier. 🙂

No matter what type of report you’re writing, always keep three things in mind: organize your ideas well, keep them concise, and do not go overboard with technical and complex language.

By the way, if you’ve any questions or concerns about report writing, then get in touch with us on Twitter @bit_docs. We would be more than happy to help you out.

Good luck!                                                                                                                                              m

Further reads:

Formal Report: What is it & How to Create it!

Annual Report: What is it & How to Create it?

9 Awesome Assignment Writing Tips to Get Better Marks!

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