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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on January 3, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

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research proposal for content analysis

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Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

To guide your introduction , include information about:

As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

To determine your budget, think about:

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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Content Analysis

Content analysis is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain words, themes, or concepts within some given qualitative data (i.e. text). Using content analysis, researchers can quantify and analyze the presence, meanings, and relationships of such certain words, themes, or concepts. As an example, researchers can evaluate language used within a news article to search for bias or partiality. Researchers can then make inferences about the messages within the texts, the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of surrounding the text.


Sources of data could be from interviews, open-ended questions, field research notes, conversations, or literally any occurrence of communicative language (such as books, essays, discussions, newspaper headlines, speeches, media, historical documents). A single study may analyze various forms of text in its analysis. To analyze the text using content analysis, the text must be coded, or broken down, into manageable code categories for analysis (i.e. “codes”). Once the text is coded into code categories, the codes can then be further categorized into “code categories” to summarize data even further.

Three different definitions of content analysis are provided below.

Definition 1: “Any technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying special characteristics of messages.” (from Holsti, 1968)

Definition 2: “An interpretive and naturalistic approach. It is both observational and narrative in nature and relies less on the experimental elements normally associated with scientific research (reliability, validity, and generalizability) (from Ethnography, Observational Research, and Narrative Inquiry, 1994-2012).

Definition 3: “A research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.” (from Berelson, 1952)

Uses of Content Analysis

Identify the intentions, focus or communication trends of an individual, group or institution

Describe attitudinal and behavioral responses to communications

Determine the psychological or emotional state of persons or groups

Reveal international differences in communication content

Reveal patterns in communication content

Pre-test and improve an intervention or survey prior to launch

Analyze focus group interviews and open-ended questions to complement quantitative data

Types of Content Analysis

There are two general types of content analysis: conceptual analysis and relational analysis. Conceptual analysis determines the existence and frequency of concepts in a text. Relational analysis develops the conceptual analysis further by examining the relationships among concepts in a text. Each type of analysis may lead to different results, conclusions, interpretations and meanings.

Conceptual Analysis

Typically people think of conceptual analysis when they think of content analysis. In conceptual analysis, a concept is chosen for examination and the analysis involves quantifying and counting its presence. The main goal is to examine the occurrence of selected terms in the data. Terms may be explicit or implicit. Explicit terms are easy to identify. Coding of implicit terms is more complicated: you need to decide the level of implication and base judgments on subjectivity (an issue for reliability and validity). Therefore, coding of implicit terms involves using a dictionary or contextual translation rules or both.

To begin a conceptual content analysis, first identify the research question and choose a sample or samples for analysis. Next, the text must be coded into manageable content categories. This is basically a process of selective reduction. By reducing the text to categories, the researcher can focus on and code for specific words or patterns that inform the research question.

General steps for conducting a conceptual content analysis:

1. Decide the level of analysis: word, word sense, phrase, sentence, themes

2. Decide how many concepts to code for: develop a pre-defined or interactive set of categories or concepts. Decide either: A. to allow flexibility to add categories through the coding process, or B. to stick with the pre-defined set of categories.

Option A allows for the introduction and analysis of new and important material that could have significant implications to one’s research question.

Option B allows the researcher to stay focused and examine the data for specific concepts.

3. Decide whether to code for existence or frequency of a concept. The decision changes the coding process.

When coding for the existence of a concept, the researcher would count a concept only once if it appeared at least once in the data and no matter how many times it appeared.

When coding for the frequency of a concept, the researcher would count the number of times a concept appears in a text.

4. Decide on how you will distinguish among concepts:

Should text be coded exactly as they appear or coded as the same when they appear in different forms? For example, “dangerous” vs. “dangerousness”. The point here is to create coding rules so that these word segments are transparently categorized in a logical fashion. The rules could make all of these word segments fall into the same category, or perhaps the rules can be formulated so that the researcher can distinguish these word segments into separate codes.

What level of implication is to be allowed? Words that imply the concept or words that explicitly state the concept? For example, “dangerous” vs. “the person is scary” vs. “that person could cause harm to me”. These word segments may not merit separate categories, due the implicit meaning of “dangerous”.

5. Develop rules for coding your texts. After decisions of steps 1-4 are complete, a researcher can begin developing rules for translation of text into codes. This will keep the coding process organized and consistent. The researcher can code for exactly what he/she wants to code. Validity of the coding process is ensured when the researcher is consistent and coherent in their codes, meaning that they follow their translation rules. In content analysis, obeying by the translation rules is equivalent to validity.

6. Decide what to do with irrelevant information: should this be ignored (e.g. common English words like “the” and “and”), or used to reexamine the coding scheme in the case that it would add to the outcome of coding?

7. Code the text: This can be done by hand or by using software. By using software, researchers can input categories and have coding done automatically, quickly and efficiently, by the software program. When coding is done by hand, a researcher can recognize errors far more easily (e.g. typos, misspelling). If using computer coding, text could be cleaned of errors to include all available data. This decision of hand vs. computer coding is most relevant for implicit information where category preparation is essential for accurate coding.

8. Analyze your results: Draw conclusions and generalizations where possible. Determine what to do with irrelevant, unwanted, or unused text: reexamine, ignore, or reassess the coding scheme. Interpret results carefully as conceptual content analysis can only quantify the information. Typically, general trends and patterns can be identified.

Relational Analysis

Relational analysis begins like conceptual analysis, where a concept is chosen for examination. However, the analysis involves exploring the relationships between concepts. Individual concepts are viewed as having no inherent meaning and rather the meaning is a product of the relationships among concepts.

To begin a relational content analysis, first identify a research question and choose a sample or samples for analysis. The research question must be focused so the concept types are not open to interpretation and can be summarized. Next, select text for analysis. Select text for analysis carefully by balancing having enough information for a thorough analysis so results are not limited with having information that is too extensive so that the coding process becomes too arduous and heavy to supply meaningful and worthwhile results.

There are three subcategories of relational analysis to choose from prior to going on to the general steps.

Affect extraction: an emotional evaluation of concepts explicit in a text. A challenge to this method is that emotions can vary across time, populations, and space. However, it could be effective at capturing the emotional and psychological state of the speaker or writer of the text.

Proximity analysis: an evaluation of the co-occurrence of explicit concepts in the text. Text is defined as a string of words called a “window” that is scanned for the co-occurrence of concepts. The result is the creation of a “concept matrix”, or a group of interrelated co-occurring concepts that would suggest an overall meaning.

Cognitive mapping: a visualization technique for either affect extraction or proximity analysis. Cognitive mapping attempts to create a model of the overall meaning of the text such as a graphic map that represents the relationships between concepts.

General steps for conducting a relational content analysis:

1. Determine the type of analysis: Once the sample has been selected, the researcher needs to determine what types of relationships to examine and the level of analysis: word, word sense, phrase, sentence, themes. 2. Reduce the text to categories and code for words or patterns. A researcher can code for existence of meanings or words. 3. Explore the relationship between concepts: once the words are coded, the text can be analyzed for the following:

Strength of relationship: degree to which two or more concepts are related.

Sign of relationship: are concepts positively or negatively related to each other?

Direction of relationship: the types of relationship that categories exhibit. For example, “X implies Y” or “X occurs before Y” or “if X then Y” or if X is the primary motivator of Y.

4. Code the relationships: a difference between conceptual and relational analysis is that the statements or relationships between concepts are coded. 5. Perform statistical analyses: explore differences or look for relationships among the identified variables during coding. 6. Map out representations: such as decision mapping and mental models.

Reliability and Validity

Reliability : Because of the human nature of researchers, coding errors can never be eliminated but only minimized. Generally, 80% is an acceptable margin for reliability. Three criteria comprise the reliability of a content analysis:

Stability: the tendency for coders to consistently re-code the same data in the same way over a period of time.

Reproducibility: tendency for a group of coders to classify categories membership in the same way.

Accuracy: extent to which the classification of text corresponds to a standard or norm statistically.

Validity : Three criteria comprise the validity of a content analysis:

Closeness of categories: this can be achieved by utilizing multiple classifiers to arrive at an agreed upon definition of each specific category. Using multiple classifiers, a concept category that may be an explicit variable can be broadened to include synonyms or implicit variables.

Conclusions: What level of implication is allowable? Do conclusions correctly follow the data? Are results explainable by other phenomena? This becomes especially problematic when using computer software for analysis and distinguishing between synonyms. For example, the word “mine,” variously denotes a personal pronoun, an explosive device, and a deep hole in the ground from which ore is extracted. Software can obtain an accurate count of that word’s occurrence and frequency, but not be able to produce an accurate accounting of the meaning inherent in each particular usage. This problem could throw off one’s results and make any conclusion invalid.

Generalizability of the results to a theory: dependent on the clear definitions of concept categories, how they are determined and how reliable they are at measuring the idea one is seeking to measure. Generalizability parallels reliability as much of it depends on the three criteria for reliability.

Advantages of Content Analysis

Directly examines communication using text

Allows for both qualitative and quantitative analysis

Provides valuable historical and cultural insights over time

Allows a closeness to data

Coded form of the text can be statistically analyzed

Unobtrusive means of analyzing interactions

Provides insight into complex models of human thought and language use

When done well, is considered a relatively “exact” research method

Content analysis is a readily-understood and an inexpensive research method

A more powerful tool when combined with other research methods such as interviews, observation, and use of archival records. It is very useful for analyzing historical material, especially for documenting trends over time.

Disadvantages of Content Analysis

Can be extremely time consuming

Is subject to increased error, particularly when relational analysis is used to attain a higher level of interpretation

Is often devoid of theoretical base, or attempts too liberally to draw meaningful inferences about the relationships and impacts implied in a study

Is inherently reductive, particularly when dealing with complex texts

Tends too often to simply consist of word counts

Often disregards the context that produced the text, as well as the state of things after the text is produced

Can be difficult to automate or computerize

Textbooks & Chapters  

Berelson, Bernard. Content Analysis in Communication Research.New York: Free Press, 1952.

Busha, Charles H. and Stephen P. Harter. Research Methods in Librarianship: Techniques and Interpretation.New York: Academic Press, 1980.

de Sola Pool, Ithiel. Trends in Content Analysis. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1959.

Krippendorff, Klaus. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980.

Fielding, NG & Lee, RM. Using Computers in Qualitative Research. SAGE Publications, 1991. (Refer to Chapter by Seidel, J. ‘Method and Madness in the Application of Computer Technology to Qualitative Data Analysis’.)

Methodological Articles  

Hsieh HF & Shannon SE. (2005). Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis.Qualitative Health Research. 15(9): 1277-1288.

Elo S, Kaarianinen M, Kanste O, Polkki R, Utriainen K, & Kyngas H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A focus on trustworthiness. Sage Open. 4:1-10.

Application Articles  

Abroms LC, Padmanabhan N, Thaweethai L, & Phillips T. (2011). iPhone Apps for Smoking Cessation: A content analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 40(3):279-285.

Ullstrom S. Sachs MA, Hansson J, Ovretveit J, & Brommels M. (2014). Suffering in Silence: a qualitative study of second victims of adverse events. British Medical Journal, Quality & Safety Issue. 23:325-331.

Owen P. (2012).Portrayals of Schizophrenia by Entertainment Media: A Content Analysis of Contemporary Movies. Psychiatric Services. 63:655-659.

Choosing whether to conduct a content analysis by hand or by using computer software can be difficult. Refer to ‘Method and Madness in the Application of Computer Technology to Qualitative Data Analysis’ listed above in “Textbooks and Chapters” for a discussion of the issue.

QSR NVivo:  http://www.qsrinternational.com/products.aspx

Atlas.ti:  http://www.atlasti.com/webinars.html

R- RQDA package:  http://rqda.r-forge.r-project.org/

Rolly Constable, Marla Cowell, Sarita Zornek Crawford, David Golden, Jake Hartvigsen, Kathryn Morgan, Anne Mudgett, Kris Parrish, Laura Thomas, Erika Yolanda Thompson, Rosie Turner, and Mike Palmquist. (1994-2012). Ethnography, Observational Research, and Narrative Inquiry. [email protected] . Colorado State University. Available at: https://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=63 .

As an introduction to Content Analysis by Michael Palmquist, this is the main resource on Content Analysis on the Web. It is comprehensive, yet succinct. It includes examples and an annotated bibliography. The information contained in the narrative above draws heavily from and summarizes Michael Palmquist’s excellent resource on Content Analysis but was streamlined for the purpose of doctoral students and junior researchers in epidemiology.

At Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, more detailed training is available through the Department of Sociomedical Sciences- P8785 Qualitative Research Methods.

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What Is Qualitative Content Analysis?

Qca explained simply (with examples).

By: Jenna Crosley (PhD). Reviewed by: Dr Eunice Rautenbach (DTech) | February 2021

If you’re in the process of preparing for your dissertation, thesis or research project, you’ve probably encountered the term “ qualitative content analysis ” – it’s quite a mouthful. If you’ve landed on this post, you’re probably a bit confused about it. Well, the good news is that you’ve come to the right place…

Overview: Qualitative Content Analysis

1. What is content analysis?

Content analysis is a  qualitative analysis method  that focuses on recorded human artefacts such as manuscripts, voice recordings and journals. Content analysis investigates these written, spoken and visual artefacts without explicitly extracting data from participants – this is called  unobtrusive  research.

In other words, with content analysis, you don’t necessarily need to interact with participants (although you can if necessary); you can simply analyse the data that they have already produced. With this type of analysis, you can analyse data such as text messages, books, Facebook posts, videos, and audio (just to mention a few).

The basics – explicit and implicit content

When working with content analysis, explicit and implicit content will play a role. Explicit data is transparent and easy to identify, while implicit data is that which requires some form of interpretation and is often of a subjective nature. Sounds a bit fluffy? Here’s an example:

Joe: Hi there, what can I help you with? 

Lauren: I recently adopted a puppy and I’m worried that I’m not feeding him the right food. Could you please advise me on what I should be feeding? 

Joe: Sure, just follow me and I’ll show you. Do you have any other pets?

Lauren: Only one, and it tweets a lot!

In this exchange, the explicit data indicates that Joe is helping Lauren to find the right puppy food. Lauren asks Joe whether she has any pets aside from her puppy. This data is explicit because it requires no interpretation.

On the other hand, implicit data , in this case, includes the fact that the speakers are in a pet store. This information is not clearly stated but can be inferred from the conversation, where Joe is helping Lauren to choose pet food. An additional piece of implicit data is that Lauren likely has some type of bird as a pet. This can be inferred from the way that Lauren states that her pet “tweets”.

As you can see, explicit and implicit data both play a role in human interaction  and are an important part of your analysis. However, it’s important to differentiate between these two types of data when you’re undertaking content analysis. Interpreting implicit data can be rather subjective as conclusions are based on the researcher’s interpretation. This can introduce an element of bias , which risks skewing your results.

Explicit and implicit data both play an important role in your content analysis, but it’s important to differentiate between them.

2. The two types of content analysis

Now that you understand the difference between implicit and explicit data, let’s move on to the two general types of content analysis : conceptual and relational content analysis. Importantly, while conceptual and relational content analysis both follow similar steps initially, the aims and outcomes of each are different.

Conceptual analysis focuses on the number of times a concept occurs in a set of data and is generally focused on explicit data. For example, if you were to have the following conversation:

Marie: She told me that she has three cats.

Jean: What are her cats’ names?

Marie: I think the first one is Bella, the second one is Mia, and… I can’t remember the third cat’s name.

In this data, you can see that the word “cat” has been used three times. Through conceptual content analysis, you can deduce that cats are the central topic of the conversation. You can also perform a frequency analysis , where you assess the term’s frequency in the data. For example, in the exchange above, the word “cat” makes up 9% of the data. In other words, conceptual analysis brings a little bit of quantitative analysis into your qualitative analysis.

As you can see, the above data is without interpretation and focuses on explicit data . Relational content analysis, on the other hand, takes a more holistic view by focusing more on implicit data in terms of context, surrounding words and relationships.

Example of a cognitive map

To recap on the essentials, content analysis is a qualitative analysis method that focuses on recorded human artefacts . It involves both conceptual analysis (which is more numbers-based) and relational analysis (which focuses on the relationships between concepts and how they’re connected).

Need a helping hand?

research proposal for content analysis

3. When should you use content analysis?

Content analysis is a useful tool that provides insight into trends of communication . For example, you could use a discussion forum as the basis of your analysis and look at the types of things the members talk about as well as how they use language to express themselves. Content analysis is flexible in that it can be applied to the individual, group, and institutional level.

Content analysis is typically used in studies where the aim is to better understand factors such as behaviours, attitudes, values, emotions, and opinions . For example, you could use content analysis to investigate an issue in society, such as miscommunication between cultures. In this example, you could compare patterns of communication in participants from different cultures, which will allow you to create strategies for avoiding misunderstandings in intercultural interactions.

Another example could include conducting content analysis on a publication such as a book. Here you could gather data on the themes, topics, language use and opinions reflected in the text to draw conclusions regarding the political (such as conservative or liberal) leanings of the publication.

Content analysis is typically used in projects where the research aims involve getting a better understanding of factors such as behaviours, attitudes, values, emotions, and opinions.

4. How to conduct a qualitative content analysis

Conceptual and relational content analysis differ in terms of their exact process ; however, there are some similarities. Let’s have a look at these first – i.e., the generic process:

Step 1 – Recap on your research questions

It’s always useful to begin a project with research questions , or at least with an idea of what you are looking for. In fact, if you’ve spent time reading this blog, you’ll know that it’s useful to recap on your research questions, aims and objectives when undertaking pretty much any research activity. In the context of content analysis, it’s difficult to know what needs to be coded and what doesn’t, without a clear view of the research questions.

For example, if you were to code a conversation focused on basic issues of social justice, you may be met with a wide range of topics that may be irrelevant to your research. However, if you approach this data set with the specific intent of investigating opinions on gender issues, you will be able to focus on this topic alone, which would allow you to code only what you need to investigate.

With content analysis, it’s difficult to know what needs to be coded  without a clear view of the research questions.

Step 2 – Reflect on your personal perspectives and biases

It’s vital that you reflect on your own pre-conception of the topic at hand and identify the biases that you might drag into your content analysis – this is called “ bracketing “. By identifying this upfront, you’ll be more aware of them and less likely to have them subconsciously influence your analysis.

For example, if you were to investigate how a community converses about unequal access to healthcare, it is important to assess your views to ensure that you don’t project these onto your understanding of the opinions put forth by the community. If you have access to medical aid, for instance, you should not allow this to interfere with your examination of unequal access.

You must reflect on the preconceptions and biases that you might drag into your content analysis - this is called "bracketing".

Step 3 – Operationalise your variables and develop a coding scheme

Next, you need to operationalise your variables . But what does that mean? Simply put, it means that you have to define each variable or concept. Give every item a clear definition – what does it mean (include) and what does it not mean (exclude). For example, if you were to investigate children’s views on healthy foods, you would first need to define what age group/range you’re looking at, and then also define what you mean by “healthy foods”.

In combination with the above, it is important to create a coding scheme , which will consist of information about your variables (how you defined each variable), as well as a process for analysing the data. For this, you would refer back to how you operationalised/defined your variables so that you know how to code your data.

For example, when coding, when should you code a food as “healthy”? What makes a food choice healthy? Is it the absence of sugar or saturated fat? Is it the presence of fibre and protein? It’s very important to have clearly defined variables to achieve consistent coding – without this, your analysis will get very muddy, very quickly.

When operationalising your variables, you must give every item a clear definition. In other words, what does it mean (include) and what does it not mean (exclude).

Step 4 – Code and analyse the data

The next step is to code the data. At this stage, there are some differences between conceptual and relational analysis.

As described earlier in this post, conceptual analysis looks at the existence and frequency of concepts, whereas a relational analysis looks at the relationships between concepts. For both types of analyses, it is important to pre-select a concept that you wish to assess in your data. Using the example of studying children’s views on healthy food, you could pre-select the concept of “healthy food” and assess the number of times the concept pops up in your data.

Here is where conceptual and relational analysis start to differ.

At this stage of conceptual analysis , it is necessary to decide on the level of analysis you’ll perform on your data, and whether this will exist on the word, phrase, sentence, or thematic level. For example, will you code the phrase “healthy food” on its own? Will you code each term relating to healthy food (e.g., broccoli, peaches, bananas, etc.) with the code “healthy food” or will these be coded individually? It is very important to establish this from the get-go to avoid inconsistencies that could result in you having to code your data all over again.

On the other hand, relational analysis looks at the type of analysis. So, will you use affect extraction? Proximity analysis? Cognitive mapping? A mix? It’s vital to determine the type of analysis before you begin to code your data so that you can maintain the reliability and validity of your research.

research proposal for content analysis

How to conduct conceptual analysis

First, let’s have a look at the process for conceptual analysis.

Once you’ve decided on your level of analysis, you need to establish how you will code your concepts, and how many of these you want to code. Here you can choose whether you want to code in a deductive or inductive manner. Just to recap, deductive coding is when you begin the coding process with a set of pre-determined codes, whereas inductive coding entails the codes emerging as you progress with the coding process. Here it is also important to decide what should be included and excluded from your analysis, and also what levels of implication you wish to include in your codes.

For example, if you have the concept of “tall”, can you include “up in the clouds”, derived from the sentence, “the giraffe’s head is up in the clouds” in the code, or should it be a separate code? In addition to this, you need to know what levels of words may be included in your codes or not. For example, if you say, “the panda is cute” and “look at the panda’s cuteness”, can “cute” and “cuteness” be included under the same code?

Once you’ve considered the above, it’s time to code the text . We’ve already published a detailed post about coding , so we won’t go into that process here. Once you’re done coding, you can move on to analysing your results. This is where you will aim to find generalisations in your data, and thus draw your conclusions .

How to conduct relational analysis

Now let’s return to relational analysis.

As mentioned, you want to look at the relationships between concepts . To do this, you’ll need to create categories by reducing your data (in other words, grouping similar concepts together) and then also code for words and/or patterns. These are both done with the aim of discovering whether these words exist, and if they do, what they mean.

Your next step is to assess your data and to code the relationships between your terms and meanings, so that you can move on to your final step, which is to sum up and analyse the data.

To recap, it’s important to start your analysis process by reviewing your research questions and identifying your biases . From there, you need to operationalise your variables, code your data and then analyse it.

Time to analyse

5. What are the pros & cons of content analysis?

One of the main advantages of content analysis is that it allows you to use a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods, which results in a more scientifically rigorous analysis.

For example, with conceptual analysis, you can count the number of times that a term or a code appears in a dataset, which can be assessed from a quantitative standpoint. In addition to this, you can then use a qualitative approach to investigate the underlying meanings of these and relationships between them.

Content analysis is also unobtrusive and therefore poses fewer ethical issues than some other analysis methods. As the content you’ll analyse oftentimes already exists, you’ll analyse what has been produced previously, and so you won’t have to collect data directly from participants. When coded correctly, data is analysed in a very systematic and transparent manner, which means that issues of replicability (how possible it is to recreate research under the same conditions) are reduced greatly.

On the downside , qualitative research (in general, not just content analysis) is often critiqued for being too subjective and for not being scientifically rigorous enough. This is where reliability (how replicable a study is by other researchers) and validity (how suitable the research design is for the topic being investigated) come into play – if you take these into account, you’ll be on your way to achieving sound research results.

One of the main advantages of content analysis is that it allows you to use a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods, which results in a more scientifically rigorous analysis.

Recap: Qualitative content analysis

In this post, we’ve covered a lot of ground – click on any of the sections to recap:

If you have any questions about qualitative content analysis, feel free to leave a comment below. If you’d like 1-on-1 help with your qualitative content analysis, be sure to book an initial consultation with one of our friendly Research Coaches.

research proposal for content analysis

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This post is part of our research writing mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project.

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Saunders' Research Onion - Explained Simply (With Examples)

If I am having three pre-decided attributes for my research based on which a set of semi-structured questions where asked then should I conduct a conceptual content analysis or relational content analysis. please note that all three attributes are different like Agility, Resilience and AI.

Janak Raj Bhatta

please send me one/ two sample of content analysis


send me to any sample of qualitative content analysis as soon as possible

abdellatif djedei

Many thanks for the brilliant explanation. Do you have a sample practical study of a foreign policy using content analysis?


1) It will be very much useful if a small but complete content analysis can be sent, from research question to coding and analysis. 2) Is there any software by which qualitative content analysis can be done?


Common software for qualitative analysis is nVivo, and quantitative analysis is IBM SPSS


Thank you. Can I have at least 2 copies of a sample analysis study as my reference?


Could you please send me some sample of textbook content analysis?

Abdoulie Nyassi

Can I send you my research topic, aims, objectives and questions to give me feedback on them?

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Content Analysis

Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 16th, 2021 , Revised On June 23, 2022

The content analysis identifies specific words, patterns, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences within the recorded communication content.

To conduct content analysis, you need to gather data from multiple sources; it can be anything or any form of data, including text, audio, or videos.

Depending on the requirements of your analysis, you may have to use a  primary or secondary form of data , including:

The Purpose of Content Analysis

There are so many objectives of content analysis. Some fundamental objectives are given below.

When to Use Content Analysis? 

There are many uses of the content analysis; some of them are listed below:

The content analysis is used.

Types of Content Analysis

Content analysis is a broad concept, and it has various types depending on various fields. However, people from all walks of life use it at their convenience. Some of the popular methods are given below:

Confused between qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis? No idea what discourse and content analysis are?

We hear you.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis

Content analysis has so many benefits which are given below.

Content analysis:


There are also some disadvantages of using the method of content analysis which are given below:

How to Conduct a Content Analysis?

If you want to conduct the content analysis, so here are some steps that you have to follow for that purpose. Those steps are given below.

Develop a Research Question and Select the Content

It’s essential to have a  research question to proceed with your study.  After selecting your research question, you need to find out the relevant resources to analyze.

Example:  If you want to find out the impact of plagiarism on the credibility of the authors. You can examine the relevant materials available on the topic from the internet, newspapers, and books published during the past 5-10 years.

Could you read it Thoroughly?

At this point, you have to read the content thoroughly until you understand it. 


It would help if you broke the text into smaller portions for clear interpretation. In short, you have to create categories or smaller text from a large amount of given data.

The unit of analysis  is the basic unit of text to be classified. It can be a word, phrase, a theme, a plot, a newspaper article.

Code the Content

It takes a long to go through the textual data. Coding is a way of tagging the data and organizing it into a sequence of symbols, numbers, and letters to highlight the relevant points. At this point, you have to draw meanings from those condensed parts. You have to understand the meaning and context of the text and the speaker clearly. 

Analyze and Interpret the Data

You can use statistical analysis to analyze the data. It is a method of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting ample data to discover underlying patterns and details. Statistics are used in every field to make better decisions. It would help if you aimed to retain the meaning of the content while making it precise.

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How to Write a Research Proposal

Lindsay Kramer

Once you’re in college and really getting into  academic writing , you may not recognize all the kinds of assignments you’re asked to complete. You know what an essay is, and you know how to respond to readings—but when you hear your professor mention a research proposal or a literature review, your mind might do a double take. 

Don’t worry; we’ve got you. Boiled down to its core, a research proposal is simply a short piece of  writing that details exactly what you’ll be covering in a larger research project. You’ll likely be required to write one for your  thesis , and if you choose to continue in academia after earning your bachelor’s degree, you’ll be writing research proposals for your master’s thesis, your dissertation, and all other research you conduct. By then, you’ll be a research proposal pro. But for now, we’ll answer all your questions and help you confidently write your first one. 

Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing shines? Grammarly can check your spelling and save you from grammar and punctuation mistakes. It even proofreads your text, so your work is extra polished wherever you write.

Your writing, at its best Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly

What is the goal of a research proposal?

In a research proposal, the goal is to present the author’s plan for the research they intend to conduct. In some cases, part of this goal is to secure funding for said research. In others, it’s to have the research approved by the author’s supervisor or department so they can move forward with it. In some cases, a research proposal is a required part of a graduate school application. In every one of these circumstances, research proposals follow the same structure.

In a research proposal, the author demonstrates how and why their research is relevant to their field. They demonstrate that the work is necessary to the following:

A research proposal also demonstrates that the author is capable of conducting this research and contributing to the current state of their field in a meaningful way. To do this, your research proposal needs to discuss your academic background and credentials as well as demonstrate that your proposed ideas have academic merit. 

But demonstrating your research’s validity and your personal capability to carry it out isn’t enough to get your research proposal approved. Your research proposal also has to cover these things:

If you’ve already read our post on literature reviews , you may be thinking that a research proposal sounds pretty similar. They’re more than just similar, though—a literature review is part of a research proposal. It’s the section that covers which sources you’re using, how you’re using them, and why they’re relevant. Think of a literature review as a mini-research proposal that fits into your larger, main proposal. 

How long should a research proposal be?

Generally, research proposals for bachelor’s and master’s theses are a few pages long. Research proposals for meatier projects, like Ph.D. dissertations and funding requests, are often longer and far more detailed. A research proposal’s goal is to clearly outline exactly what your research will entail and accomplish, so including the proposal’s word count or page count isn’t nearly as important as it is to ensure that all the necessary elements and content are present. 

Research proposal structure

A research proposal follows a fairly straightforward structure. In order to achieve the goals described in the previous section, nearly all research proposals include the following sections:


Your introduction achieves a few goals:

In a research proposal, an introduction can be a few paragraphs long. It should be concise, but don’t feel like you need to cram all of your information into one paragraph. 

In some cases, you need to include an abstract and/or a table of contents in your research proposal. These are included just before the introduction. 

Background significance

This is where you explain why your research is necessary and how it relates to established research in your field. Your work might complement existing research, strengthen it, or even challenge it—no matter how your work will “play with” other researchers’ work, you need to express it in detail in your research proposal.  

This is also the section where you clearly define the existing problems your research will address. By doing this, you’re explaining why your work is necessary—in other words, this is where you answer the reader’s “so what?” 

In your background significance section, you’ll also outline how you’ll conduct your research. If necessary, note which related questions and issues you won’t be covering in your research. 

Literature review

In your  literature review , you introduce all the sources you plan to use in your research. This includes landmark studies and their data, books, and scholarly articles. A literature review isn’t merely a list of sources (that’s what your bibliography is for); a literature review delves into the collection of sources you chose and explains how you’re using them in your research. 

Research design, methods, and schedule

Following your research review, you’ll discuss your research plans. In this section, make sure you cover these aspects:

Beyond a comprehensive look at your research itself, you’ll also need to include:

Suppositions and implications

Although you can’t know your research’s results until you’ve actually done the work, you should be going into the project with a clear idea of how your work will contribute to your field. This section is perhaps the most critical to your research proposal’s argument because it expresses exactly why your research is necessary. 

In this section, make sure you cover the following:

In other words, this section isn’t about stating the specific results you expect. Rather, it’s where you state how your findings will be valuable. 

This is where you wrap it all up. Your conclusion section, just like your conclusion paragraph for an essay , briefly summarizes your research proposal and reinforces your research’s stated purpose. 


Yes, you need to write a bibliography in addition to your literature review. Unlike your literature review, where you explained the relevance of the sources you chose and in some cases, challenged them, your bibliography simply lists your sources and their authors.

The way you write a citation depends on the style guide you’re using. The three most common style guides for academics are MLA , APA , and Chicago , and each has its own particular rules and requirements. Keep in mind that each formatting style has specific guidelines for citing just about any kind of source, including photos , websites , speeches , and YouTube videos .

Sometimes, a full bibliography is not needed. When this is the case, you can include a references list, which is simply a scaled-down list of all the sources you cited in your work. If you’re not sure which to write, ask your supervisor. 

Here’s a tip: Grammarly’s  Citation Generator  ensures your essays have flawless citations and no plagiarism. Try it for citing journal articles in MLA , APA , and Chicago  styles.

How to write a research proposal

Research proposals, like all other kinds of academic writing, are written in a formal, objective tone. Keep in mind that being concise is a key component of academic writing; formal does not mean flowery. 

Adhere to the structure outlined above. Your reader knows how a research proposal is supposed to read and expects it to fit this template. It’s crucial that you present your research proposal in a clear, logical way. Every question the reader has while reading your proposal should be answered by the final section. 

Editing and proofreading a research proposal

When you’re writing a research proposal, follow the same six-step writing process you follow with every other kind of writing you do. 

After you’ve got a first draft written, take some time to let it “cool off” before you start proofreading . By doing this, you’re making it easier for yourself to catch mistakes and gaps in your writing. 

Common mistakes to avoid when writing a research proposal

When you’re writing a research proposal, avoid these common pitfalls: 

Being too wordy

As we said earlier, formal does not mean flowery. In fact, you should aim to keep your writing as brief and to-the-point as possible. The more economically you can express your purpose and goal, the better.   

Failing to cite relevant sources

When you’re conducting research, you’re adding to the existing body of knowledge on the subject you’re covering. Your research proposal should reference one or more of the landmark research pieces in your field and connect your work to these works in some way. This doesn’t just communicate your work’s relevance—it also demonstrates your familiarity with the field. 

Focusing too much on minor issues

There are probably a lot of great reasons why your research is necessary. These reasons don’t all need to be in your research proposal. In fact, including too many questions and issues in your research proposal can detract from your central purpose, weakening the proposal. Save the minor issues for your research paper itself and cover only the major, key issues you aim to tackle in your proposal. 

Failing to make a strong argument for your research

This is perhaps the easiest way to undermine your proposal because it’s far more subjective than the others. A research proposal is, in essence, a piece of persuasive writing . That means that although you’re presenting your proposal in an objective, academic way, the goal is to get the reader to say “yes” to your work. 

This is true in every case, whether your reader is your supervisor, your department head, a graduate school admissions board, a private or government-backed funding provider, or the editor at a journal in which you’d like to publish your work. 

Polish your writing into a stellar proposal

When you’re asking for approval to conduct research—especially when there’s funding involved—you need to be nothing less than 100 percent confident in your proposal. If your research proposal has spelling or grammatical mistakes, an inconsistent or inappropriate tone, or even just awkward phrasing, those will undermine your credibility. 

Make sure your research proposal shines by using Grammarly to catch all of those issues. Even if you think you caught all of them while you were editing, it’s critical to double-check your work. Your research deserves the best proposal possible, and Grammarly can help you make that happen. 

research proposal for content analysis

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Research Analysis Paper: How to Analyze a Research Article

Research Analysis Paper

Have you been asked to write a research analysis paper but don’t know where to start? If you’re like most students, you may have never written a research paper before and feel a bit intimidated by the prospect. But don’t worry – writing a research analysis paper is not as difficult as it sounds.

In this article, we’ll walk you through the process of writing a research analysis paper, step by step. We’ll start by discussing what a research analysis paper is and what it is not. Then we’ll give you some tips on how to choose a good topic for your paper. After that, we’ll provide an outline of what your paper should include, and finally, we’ll offer some advice on how to write your paper so that it is clear, concise, and interesting.

research proposal for content analysis

What is an appendix in a paper?

How to write a research proposal, exploratory data analysis research paper.

Parts of a research paper

How to write a meta analysis research paper, what is a research analysis paper.

A research analysis paper is a type of academic writing that requires you to analyze an argument or a problem. Your goal in this type of paper is to use your critical thinking skills to evaluate the claims made in the text and to determine whether or not they are valid. To do this effectively, you will need to do your research on the topic.

A research analysis paper is not a paper that simply summarizes the text. Instead, it is a critical evaluation of the argument made in the text. To write a good research analysis paper, you will need to have strong analytical skills and be able to back up your claims with evidence.

Outline: Research Analysis Paper

Your research analysis paper should include the following sections:


How to Write Your Research Analysis Paper

Now that you know what a research analysis paper is and what it should include, let’s take a look at how to write it.

The introduction of your research analysis paper should be brief and to the point. It should introduce the topic of the paper and state the position that you will be taking.

The background information section should provide a brief overview of the topic of the paper.

The analysis of the argument or problem section should discuss the claims made in the text and analyze them critically.

The conclusion should summarize your findings and state whether or not you agree with the argument made in the text.

If you are having difficulty writing your research analysis paper, our professional writing service can help. Contact us today for a free consultation!

How to Analyze a Research Article

When you are assigned a research article to analyze in a research analysis paper, there are specific steps you can take to make sure you understand it thoroughly. Here are the steps involved in analyzing the research article:

Read and understand the topic:

The first step is to read and understand the paper. This means reading it carefully, making sure you understand all of the concepts and terms used. Follow these steps to read and understand the research topic:

By following these steps, you will be able to understand the research article better and be able to write a more comprehensive analysis of it.

Understand the methodology:

Next, you need to understand the research methodology used in the study. This includes understanding how the study was conducted and what data was collected. It is important to understand how the study was conducted so that you can assess the quality of the data and the results.

Once you understand the research methodology, you need to assess the quality of the data. This includes looking at how the data was collected and analyzed. You should also look at any limitations of the study.

Evaluate the results:

After you understand the methodology and results, it is important to critically evaluate the results. This means asking questions such as whether the results are statistically significant and whether they support the hypotheses being tested.

It is also important to consider whether the study has any limitations. For example, did the researchers use a convenience sample? This means that they only sampled people who were readily available and may not be representative of the population as a whole.

Another limitation to consider is whether the study was longitudinal or cross-sectional. Longitudinal studies follow participants over time, while cross-sectional studies only collect data at one point in time. Longitudinal studies are generally considered more reliable than cross-sectional studies because they can provide information on causality.

When critiquing a research paper, it is important to consider both the strengths and limitations of the study. By doing this, you will be able to put the results into context and determine whether they apply to your research.

Make conclusions:

Once you have critically evaluated the results, you can start to conclude the findings of the study. This means determining what the results mean for theory and practice. For example, if a study found that a new intervention is effective, you might conclude that the intervention should be implemented in clinical settings.

When concluding, it is important to consider the implications of the findings. For example, if a study found that a particular intervention is effective, you should consider whether there are any ethical implications of implementing the intervention. You should also think about how the findings might be applied in other contexts or with different populations.

After you have concluded the findings of the study, you can start to write the paper. The first step is to write an introduction, which should include a brief overview of the research being critiqued. The introduction should also state the purpose of the paper and provide an overview of the main points that will be discussed.

Research Analysis Paper: Key Questions

When writing a research analysis paper, one has to consider a couple of questions based on each part of a research paper.

Paper Title

The questions that need to be considered when analyzing the title are:

After critically evaluating the title, one moves on to analyze the abstract by asking these questions:

After analyzing both, the title and abstract, it is time to move on and analyze each section of a research paper starting with an introduction by asking these questions:

Methods section

The next section that needs to be analyzed is a method section and these are the questions that need to be considered:

Results section

The next section to be analyzed is a results section and these are the questions that need to be considered:

Discussion/Conclusion section

The final section to be analyzed is a discussion section and these are the questions that need to be considered:


Now that you have a better understanding of how to analyze a research article, it is time to put this knowledge into practice. Use these tips to write a research analysis paper that is both informative and well-written. Good luck!

How to write hypothesis in a research paper

Content analysis, how to conduct research for a research paper, research paper title page.

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Content Analysis for Research – Complete Guide

Published 16 August 2021

Content Analysis Research

Content analysis is an important part of the research. It allows for the systematic examination and interpretation of a large body of information that can be used to develop new knowledge or test existing theories. Content analysis is a research method that provides insights into the relationship between content and context, or what people are saying about a particular topic. The results of content analysis can be used to inform decision-making in marketing, public relations, and other fields. This blog post will discuss how to do content analysis, including what it is and its types, use, advantages, and disadvantages.

Concept of Content Analysis for Research

Content analysis is a research technique for systematically analyzing written, visual, or spoken communication. It involves breaking down and examining the meaning of communication into its separate elements in order to identify patterns, relationships, themes, and trends.

Content analysis can be either a quantitative or qualitative approach which the researcher applies for analyzing the text. It is a type of analytical technique that you can apply in different types of research such as media, marketing, sociology, etc. It is a research technique that mainly emphasizes actual content. You can also consider content analysis to be the procedure of data analysis where the researcher performs an investigation on content within a message.

For example, The report containing information about the weather conditions of a particular location in the next few days. By analyzing the text or content you can easily make your judgment about traveling to a specific location.

Example of content analysis in quantitative and qualitative research

Quantitative research: An investigation which the author performs with the purpose of identifying the issues in employment. Investigators by analyzing the speech of different speakers in a campaign researcher can easily identify the frequency of words like jobs, work, and employment. They can utilize statistical techniques for analyzing the difference in a speech of different people during the campaign.

Qualitative research: Using the same above example, but here the researcher will require to locate the terms in speech and the investigator will require to address the other phrases that candidates have used for describing the term employment issues. Some of the candidates may have to use the terms laziness, unemployment for describing the situation of employment.

Therefore, considering the fact the researcher will need to develop an understanding of the relationship between two different terms.

Looking For Custom Research Topics & Ideas

Different types of text in content analysis.

The various types of texts in the content analysis are:

Written text: Such types of text include books journals etc. Oral text: It includes oral speech. Iconic texts: These are basically drawing, paintings, etc. Audio-visual text: It includes TV programs, videos, movies etc. Hyper texts: These texts are generally found on the internet.

Uses of content analysis for research

Uses of content analysis in research are:

Importance of content analysis for research

Types of content analysis for research

The two most common types of content analysis for research are:

Conceptual analysis

It is basically a type of content analysis that mainly involves quantifying the presence of the specific term in a text. Conceptual analysis entails the identification of concepts in the text. Rather than identifying specific words as such, concept analysis allows you to search for groups of words as they relate to a specific meaning or concept.

Relational analysis

It is a procedure that includes the identification of concepts there in the text . The relational analysis mainly emphasizes on examination of the relationship between various concepts present in a text. The relational analysis goes one step beyond the identifying of concepts and attempts to find meaningful relationships between multiple occurrences.

For example, analysis of the speech given by the president of America on health care services. While analyzing the speech of the president on health care services, the investigator will be more interested in quantifying the number of times positive or negative words for health care services are used by the president which is considered as conceptual analysis. But in relational analysis, the researcher is more concerned about analyzing the relationship between the texts and positive and negative words in speech.

Advantages of content analysis for research

You can get various advantages by utilizing content analysis. Some of the advantages are:

Disadvantages of content analysis for research

There are some disadvantages of content analysis for research:

Process of conducting content analysis for research

Before planning to perform the content analysis for research, you will require to formulate research questions .

For example: Is there any difference in a speech given by different candidates on employment issues during a social campaign?.

The further process of content analysis in research includes the different phases these are:

Step 1 – Selection of content for analyzing

It is the research question that you have select that will help in the selection of text. You need to identify the problem as to the first and foremost step.

For example, Media representing employment issues, and you intend to examine the article in news. As it is a large volume of content then you will need to select a few newspapers by applying the sampling method in research .

Step 2 – Defining the Units and categories of analysis

It is basically a phase in the content analysis where you need to establish the standard in order to analyze text.

For example, you need to record the frequency of the term. In addition to this, you will also require to determine the categories which you can use for the objective of coding.

Step 3 – Develop a set of rules for coding

It is a stage in a content analysis where you need to arrange units according to the predetermined sequence. Here, it is very much essential for you to clearly define the regulation before performing coding as these tactics will help you in making the research methodology more consistent.

For example, considering the above example, you have to use the economy as a category. Then you have to determine that which term can relate to the employment issue,

Step 4 – Content coding according to the rules

You for performing the content-coding are needed to record all relevant information in their suitable categories. You code the text and record all the data in categories. This is done manually, but it can be computerized to make the process of counting and categorizing words and phrases a speedy task.

Step 5 – Analysis of outcomes and draw conclusions

Based on the coding scheme, review items by category – a number of items, percentage of items coded to this category, themes that emerge. It is a phase where you need to examine the information by doing so you will be able to identify pastern and make a research paper conclusion .

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Data Analysis Research Proposals Samples For Students

113 samples of this type

While studying in college, you will inevitably have to write a bunch of Research Proposals on Data Analysis. Lucky you if putting words together and transforming them into relevant content comes naturally to you; if it's not the case, you can save the day by finding a previously written Data Analysis Research Proposal example and using it as a model to follow.

This is when you will certainly find WowEssays' free samples catalog extremely helpful as it includes numerous expertly written works on most various Data Analysis Research Proposals topics. Ideally, you should be able to find a piece that meets your criteria and use it as a template to build your own Research Proposal. Alternatively, our competent essay writers can deliver you an original Data Analysis Research Proposal model crafted from scratch according to your personal instructions.

Good Leveraging Big Data To Analyze Consumer Behavior In Digital And Retail Marketing Research Proposal Example

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Good Human Resources - Training & Development For Leaders In Middle East Research Proposal Example

Good example of attitudes of saudi families toward t.v and online advertisements: a comparative research proposal, free research proposal about purpose of the study.

Aviation safety is a concern to many stakeholders in the aviation industry. Air accidents occur because the technological advancements in preventing the accidents are not sufficient (Tetteh, 2006). The recent accidents in Russia and some European aircraft crushing on African soil confirm this (Pyadushkin, 2013). The paper presents a proposal for evaluating and solving the safety issues of passengers while on board and in the air. It analyzes how the changes in technology will help to lower the accident rates further to the lowest possible level.

Transmittal Research Proposal

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Content Analysis

Content Analysis An Introduction to Its Methodology

What matters in people’s social lives? What motivates and inspires our society? How do we enact what we know?

Since the first edition published in 1980, Content Analysis has helped shape and define the field. In the highly anticipated  Fourth Edition, award-winning scholar and author Klaus Krippendorff introduces readers to the most current method of analyzing the textual fabric of contemporary society. Students and scholars will learn to treat data not as physical events but as communications that are created and disseminated to be seen, read, interpreted, enacted, and reflected upon according to the meanings they have for their recipients. Interpreting communications as texts in the contexts of their social uses distinguishes content analysis from other empirical methods of inquiry.

Organized into three parts,  Content Analysis first examines the conceptual aspects of content analysis, then discusses components such as unitizing and sampling, and concludes by showing readers how to trace the analytical paths and apply evaluative techniques. The Fourth Edition has been completely revised to offer readers the most current techniques and research on content analysis, including new information on reliability and social media. Readers will also gain practical advice and experience for teaching academic and commercial researchers how to conduct content analysis. 

Available with Perusall —an eBook that makes it easier to prepare for class Perusall is an award-winning eBook platform featuring social annotation tools that allow students and instructors to collaboratively mark up and discuss their SAGE textbook. Backed by research and supported by technological innovations developed at Harvard University, this process of learning through collaborative annotation keeps your students engaged and makes teaching easier and more effective. Learn more .

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Solid overview of various types of content analyses and practical tools

This is perhaps a little 'heavy going' for our students, who will usually be completely new to research methods, and won't have come across content analysis before. However, it's a really useful text for anyone wanting to explore content analysis techniques in more depth. I would recommend it as follow-up reading to a more 'entry-level' text.

This is a comprehensive and well structured book, and one that is easy for students to refer to when they need specific information on different topics.

This book and its previous editions is one of the fundamental readings in all of my courses. It covers all important aspects of qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1. History

Chapter 3. Uses and Inferences

For instructors

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The Content Analysis Reader

This title is also available on SAGE Research Methods , the ultimate digital methods library. If your library doesn’t have access, ask your librarian to start a trial .

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"Content analysis research proposal" Essays and Research Papers

research proposal for content analysis

Content of Research Proposal

Content of a Research Proposal Title This should be short and explanatory. Your first attempt may change as your work progresses- consider does it mirror the content of the proposal . Background This section should contain a rationale for your research - why are you undertaking the project? Why is the research needed- is it worth it?- why has it aroused your interest? You need to demonstrate that you know what you are talking about and that you have knowledge of the literature surrounding

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research proposal for content analysis

contents of social sciences research proposal

from the following alternatives (1% each) 1. Which one of the following is not the subject matter of sociology? A. The structure and function of medical laboratory sciences and pathology as a part of social system. B. The nature‚ complexity and contents of human social behavior C. The fundamentals of human social life D. Interaction of medical laboratory sciences and pathology with their external environment E. All of the above F. None of the above 2.

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Research Proposal- Exposure of Sexual Content on Television

Table of Contents |Serial No. |Title of Section |Page Number | |1 |Introduction |2-9 | |2 |Background |10 | |3 | Research Problem |10-11

Free Television Television program Television network

Research Design: a Content Analysis

Research Design Content analysis is a process in which narrative data are divided into units of analysis to examine the contents of a particular body of material for the purpose of identifying patterns‚ themes or biases (Leedy and Ormrod‚ (2005). Further‚ qualitative content analysis has been defined in other ways such as: • “a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text or [narrative] data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying

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research proposal for content analysis

Content Analysis

8 Content Analysis Guide Department of Media and Communication University of Leicester 2010 DEFINITIONS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS A research technique for the objective‚ systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication Berelson‚ B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research . Glencoe‚ Illinois: Free Press. Any technique for making inferences by systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages Holsti‚ O. R. (1969). Content analysis for

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Communications Research Dr. Jahandarie Content Analysis 1. Question for Study: Who does the author of the article blame for the fiscal crisis? 2. Categories for Study: Category 1. The Democrats are at fault Category 2. The Republicans are at fault Category 3. The Tea Party is to blame. Category 4. General Filler Operational Definitions: Category 1: Statements by the author or quotes from Republican officials that blame Democrats for the crisis

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Unit 2 Content Analysis Assignment Submitted by: Michael L. Albiston LSTD-5083-200 – Qualitative Research Methods College of Liberal Studies: University of Oklahoma To Dr. Steven Gullberg February 24‚ 2013 Abstract We are losing thousands of the nation’s brightest citizens to the adverse effect of college binge drinking. These loses are not only due to death‚ but also to failing in school‚ unplanned pregnancy‚ injuries and arrests. The majority of these students participating in

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newsletter. Stemler‚ Steve (2001). An overview of content analysis . Practical Assessment‚ Research & Evaluation‚ 7(17). Retrieved December 6‚ 2010 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=17 . This paper has been viewed 204‚464 times since 6/7/2001. An Overview of Content Analysis Steve Stemler Yale University Content analysis has been defined as a systematic‚ replicable technique for compressing many words of text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules of coding (Berelson

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research proposal for content analysis

Research Proposal

How to Write a Research Proposal Framework of the Research Proposal A research proposal is a written document that includes the following information: – Summary of prior literature. – Identification of research topic and research questions. – Specification of procedure to be followed to answer research questions. The purpose of your proposal is to sell your idea by showing you have thought it through very carefully and have planned a good research study. There

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University of South Africa 2013-05-30 Dear Sir/Madam Re: Research proposal : Why do People Volunteer Work. I am currently associated with UNISA where I am an honours student in Psychology. I have special interest in why do people volunteer work due to some volunteer work I am doing with a home called Botshabelo and an organisation called Stop Hunger SA. I have attached a proposal for further research in this field. The reasons for approaching you is because I will need funding

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Education 3 4. Hair J.‚ Money A.‚ Page M.‚ and Samouel P. (2007) Research Methods for Business. England: John Wiley & Sons 5 6. Laroche‚ M.‚ Nepomuceno‚ V. M.‚ and Richard‚ O. A. (2010) ‘How do involvement and product knowledge affect the relationship between intangibility and perceived risk for brands and product categories?.’ Journal of Consumer Marketing 27‚ (3) 197-210 7. McGivern‚ Y. (2006) The Practice of Market and Social Research . England: Pearson Education 8 9. Molina E. M. and Saura G. I.

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Research proposal : Young people’s opinion about having sex before marriage as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this issue is the primary focus of this current research . Nowadays‚ having sex before marriage is becoming too familiar to young people all over the world. However‚ from past to present‚ almost Vietnamese have appreciated women’s virginity. The women need to be a virgin before she gets marriage. If they are not‚ their husbands has no respect for them. Now‚ facing to the

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The Team Members. CONTENTS Title Page No Abstract …………… 03 Review of Related Information and Literature …………… 05 Review of Related Literature …………… 08 The Research Problem …………… 10 The Research Question …………… 11 The Hypothesis …………… 11 Statement of Hypothesis …………… 12 Variables Involved …………… 12 Purpose of Research …………… 13 Research Procedure …………… 15 (A) Research Design …………… 15 (B) Data

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research proposal

Introduction In this Research Proposal ‚ the proposal is based on the dissertation topic “Setting up of a Textile Plant in India” the topic deals with the setting up of a textile plant in India. The country like India has such a good economy with a world ’s eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following market-based economic reforms in 1991‚ India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newly industrialized country (From

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Running Head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL Liquidity Risk Management: Islamic Banks Table of contents Abstract.................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 4 Literature Review..........................................................................................................

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How to Prepare Thesis Proposal A guide for MPhil and PhD students Preface To many students‚ it may be the first time that they write a research proposal . This booklet serves as a reference guide to highlight the process in preparing a research proposal and basic elements that should be included. Students should bear in mind that this booklet is in no way an exhaustive list of topics that need to be considered in preparing a thesis proposal . Different disciplines may have different expectations

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20/02/2012 Research Proposal : ACCOUNTING‚ ETHICS & THE LINKS MISSING BETWEEN THEM Based on a study of Business Research Term Paper On Research Proposal : ACCOUNTING‚ ETHICS & THE LINKS MISSING BETWEEN THEM Prepared For: Dr. Mohammed Belal Uddin Assistant Professor Department of Accounting & Information Systems Comilla University Prepared by: Group 3 Consisting of: Ummay Taslima (02) Farhana Afroje (07) Saleha Chowdhury (17) Tahmina Mannan (33) Arzuman Fatema (49) Mosharref Husain (51) Department

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changing economy has DDS wanting to adhere to its mission to improve the quality of life for Texans with disabilities that apply for or receive Social Security disability benefits by making timely and accurate disability determinations. The aim of this research is to provide an insight into the issue of employee turnover in Disability Determination Services‚ describing how Employees satisfaction helps retain Employees. This knowledge will be used to formulate a plan to retain employees and continue to provide

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FACTORS THAT HAVE LED INTO THE SLOW GROWTH OF BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN KERICHO: A CASE STUDY OF MUTAI COMPANY BETT JOANNE CHEPKIRUI BBM/1529/09 A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the award of bachelor of business management. Presented to Dr.Rose Omondi‚ DECLARATION I declare that this research proposal is my original work in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree in bachelors of business management and has not been submitted for assessment in any other

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facilities in the Western Cape due to a decline in experienced members continued service. This research aims to study the attitudes and perceptions of former Hospitals & Institutions volunteers to further understand their decision to stop service. Interviews will be conducted in order to explore the reasons for this behaviour. Data will be gathered from the transcribed interviews and thematic analysis will be used to analyse‚ code and organise findings in themes. The objective of the project

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8-step procedure to conduct qualitative content analysis in a research

A study by Ary et al. (1996) categorized qualitative research/method into two distinct forms. Firstly participant observation, where the researcher is a participant of the study. Secondly non-participant observation, where the researcher observes but does not participate. It is in this non-participant observation where one can use the content analysis approach.

“A research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns ”-   Hsieh & Shannon (2005; p.1278).

The content analysis unlike statistical analysis does not measure or quantify patterns. It is based on interpreting opinions and perspectives of various subjects. Content analysis takes into following elements when analyzing issues:

Major elements to take into consideration while conducting a content analysis

Steps of content analysis

Content analysis in qualitative research is carried out by recording the communication between the researcher and its subjects. One can use different modes such as transcripts of interviews/discourses, protocols of observation, video tapes and written documents for communication. Its strength lies in its stringent methodological control and step-by-step analysis of material. In other words every element in the data collected is categorized into themes which are identified through secondary literature. The method of the analysis comprises following 8 steps:

Computer-assisted qualitative content analysis

In conclusion ,qualitative data, like quantitative data can be huge. In such cases assistance from computer programs is required in order to reduce the complexity of analysis. Among various tools the most common are NVivo or Atlas. These tools have several features, which helps in coding and development of the nodes. This also enables visual presentation of interpretations drawn from the content.

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11.2 Steps in Developing a Research Proposal

Learning objectives.

Writing a good research paper takes time, thought, and effort. Although this assignment is challenging, it is manageable. Focusing on one step at a time will help you develop a thoughtful, informative, well-supported research paper.

Your first step is to choose a topic and then to develop research questions, a working thesis, and a written research proposal. Set aside adequate time for this part of the process. Fully exploring ideas will help you build a solid foundation for your paper.

Choosing a Topic

When you choose a topic for a research paper, you are making a major commitment. Your choice will help determine whether you enjoy the lengthy process of research and writing—and whether your final paper fulfills the assignment requirements. If you choose your topic hastily, you may later find it difficult to work with your topic. By taking your time and choosing carefully, you can ensure that this assignment is not only challenging but also rewarding.

Writers understand the importance of choosing a topic that fulfills the assignment requirements and fits the assignment’s purpose and audience. (For more information about purpose and audience, see Chapter 6 “Writing Paragraphs: Separating Ideas and Shaping Content” .) Choosing a topic that interests you is also crucial. You instructor may provide a list of suggested topics or ask that you develop a topic on your own. In either case, try to identify topics that genuinely interest you.

After identifying potential topic ideas, you will need to evaluate your ideas and choose one topic to pursue. Will you be able to find enough information about the topic? Can you develop a paper about this topic that presents and supports your original ideas? Is the topic too broad or too narrow for the scope of the assignment? If so, can you modify it so it is more manageable? You will ask these questions during this preliminary phase of the research process.

Identifying Potential Topics

Sometimes, your instructor may provide a list of suggested topics. If so, you may benefit from identifying several possibilities before committing to one idea. It is important to know how to narrow down your ideas into a concise, manageable thesis. You may also use the list as a starting point to help you identify additional, related topics. Discussing your ideas with your instructor will help ensure that you choose a manageable topic that fits the requirements of the assignment.

In this chapter, you will follow a writer named Jorge, who is studying health care administration, as he prepares a research paper. You will also plan, research, and draft your own research paper.

Jorge was assigned to write a research paper on health and the media for an introductory course in health care. Although a general topic was selected for the students, Jorge had to decide which specific issues interested him. He brainstormed a list of possibilities.

If you are writing a research paper for a specialized course, look back through your notes and course activities. Identify reading assignments and class discussions that especially engaged you. Doing so can help you identify topics to pursue.

Set a timer for five minutes. Use brainstorming or idea mapping to create a list of topics you would be interested in researching for a paper about the influence of the Internet on social networking. Do you closely follow the media coverage of a particular website, such as Twitter? Would you like to learn more about a certain industry, such as online dating? Which social networking sites do you and your friends use? List as many ideas related to this topic as you can.

Narrowing Your Topic

Once you have a list of potential topics, you will need to choose one as the focus of your essay. You will also need to narrow your topic. Most writers find that the topics they listed during brainstorming or idea mapping are broad—too broad for the scope of the assignment. Working with an overly broad topic, such as sexual education programs or popularized diets, can be frustrating and overwhelming. Each topic has so many facets that it would be impossible to cover them all in a college research paper. However, more specific choices, such as the pros and cons of sexual education in kids’ television programs or the physical effects of the South Beach diet, are specific enough to write about without being too narrow to sustain an entire research paper.

A good research paper provides focused, in-depth information and analysis. If your topic is too broad, you will find it difficult to do more than skim the surface when you research it and write about it. Narrowing your focus is essential to making your topic manageable. To narrow your focus, explore your topic in writing, conduct preliminary research, and discuss both the topic and the research with others.

Exploring Your Topic in Writing

“How am I supposed to narrow my topic when I haven’t even begun researching yet?” In fact, you may already know more than you realize. Review your list and identify your top two or three topics. Set aside some time to explore each one through freewriting. (For more information about freewriting, see Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” .) Simply taking the time to focus on your topic may yield fresh angles.

Jorge knew that he was especially interested in the topic of diet fads, but he also knew that it was much too broad for his assignment. He used freewriting to explore his thoughts so he could narrow his topic. Read Jorge’s ideas.

Conducting Preliminary Research

Another way writers may focus a topic is to conduct preliminary research . Like freewriting, exploratory reading can help you identify interesting angles. Surfing the web and browsing through newspaper and magazine articles are good ways to start. Find out what people are saying about your topic on blogs and online discussion groups. Discussing your topic with others can also inspire you. Talk about your ideas with your classmates, your friends, or your instructor.

Jorge’s freewriting exercise helped him realize that the assigned topic of health and the media intersected with a few of his interests—diet, nutrition, and obesity. Preliminary online research and discussions with his classmates strengthened his impression that many people are confused or misled by media coverage of these subjects.

Jorge decided to focus his paper on a topic that had garnered a great deal of media attention—low-carbohydrate diets. He wanted to find out whether low-carbohydrate diets were as effective as their proponents claimed.

Writing at Work

At work, you may need to research a topic quickly to find general information. This information can be useful in understanding trends in a given industry or generating competition. For example, a company may research a competitor’s prices and use the information when pricing their own product. You may find it useful to skim a variety of reliable sources and take notes on your findings.

The reliability of online sources varies greatly. In this exploratory phase of your research, you do not need to evaluate sources as closely as you will later. However, use common sense as you refine your paper topic. If you read a fascinating blog comment that gives you a new idea for your paper, be sure to check out other, more reliable sources as well to make sure the idea is worth pursuing.

Review the list of topics you created in Note 11.18 “Exercise 1” and identify two or three topics you would like to explore further. For each of these topics, spend five to ten minutes writing about the topic without stopping. Then review your writing to identify possible areas of focus.

Set aside time to conduct preliminary research about your potential topics. Then choose a topic to pursue for your research paper.


Please share your topic list with a classmate. Select one or two topics on his or her list that you would like to learn more about and return it to him or her. Discuss why you found the topics interesting, and learn which of your topics your classmate selected and why.

A Plan for Research

Your freewriting and preliminary research have helped you choose a focused, manageable topic for your research paper. To work with your topic successfully, you will need to determine what exactly you want to learn about it—and later, what you want to say about it. Before you begin conducting in-depth research, you will further define your focus by developing a research question , a working thesis, and a research proposal.

Formulating a Research Question

In forming a research question, you are setting a goal for your research. Your main research question should be substantial enough to form the guiding principle of your paper—but focused enough to guide your research. A strong research question requires you not only to find information but also to put together different pieces of information, interpret and analyze them, and figure out what you think. As you consider potential research questions, ask yourself whether they would be too hard or too easy to answer.

To determine your research question, review the freewriting you completed earlier. Skim through books, articles, and websites and list the questions you have. (You may wish to use the 5WH strategy to help you formulate questions. See Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” for more information about 5WH questions.) Include simple, factual questions and more complex questions that would require analysis and interpretation. Determine your main question—the primary focus of your paper—and several subquestions that you will need to research to answer your main question.

Here are the research questions Jorge will use to focus his research. Notice that his main research question has no obvious, straightforward answer. Jorge will need to research his subquestions, which address narrower topics, to answer his main question.

Using the topic you selected in Note 11.24 “Exercise 2” , write your main research question and at least four to five subquestions. Check that your main research question is appropriately complex for your assignment.

Constructing a Working ThesIs

A working thesis concisely states a writer’s initial answer to the main research question. It does not merely state a fact or present a subjective opinion. Instead, it expresses a debatable idea or claim that you hope to prove through additional research. Your working thesis is called a working thesis for a reason—it is subject to change. As you learn more about your topic, you may change your thinking in light of your research findings. Let your working thesis serve as a guide to your research, but do not be afraid to modify it based on what you learn.

Jorge began his research with a strong point of view based on his preliminary writing and research. Read his working thesis statement, which presents the point he will argue. Notice how it states Jorge’s tentative answer to his research question.

One way to determine your working thesis is to consider how you would complete sentences such as I believe or My opinion is . However, keep in mind that academic writing generally does not use first-person pronouns. These statements are useful starting points, but formal research papers use an objective voice.

Write a working thesis statement that presents your preliminary answer to the research question you wrote in Note 11.27 “Exercise 3” . Check that your working thesis statement presents an idea or claim that could be supported or refuted by evidence from research.

Creating a Research Proposal

A research proposal is a brief document—no more than one typed page—that summarizes the preliminary work you have completed. Your purpose in writing it is to formalize your plan for research and present it to your instructor for feedback. In your research proposal, you will present your main research question, related subquestions, and working thesis. You will also briefly discuss the value of researching this topic and indicate how you plan to gather information.

When Jorge began drafting his research proposal, he realized that he had already created most of the pieces he needed. However, he knew he also had to explain how his research would be relevant to other future health care professionals. In addition, he wanted to form a general plan for doing the research and identifying potentially useful sources. Read Jorge’s research proposal.

Read Jorge's research proposal

Before you begin a new project at work, you may have to develop a project summary document that states the purpose of the project, explains why it would be a wise use of company resources, and briefly outlines the steps involved in completing the project. This type of document is similar to a research proposal. Both documents define and limit a project, explain its value, discuss how to proceed, and identify what resources you will use.

Writing Your Own Research Proposal

Now you may write your own research proposal, if you have not done so already. Follow the guidelines provided in this lesson.

Key Takeaways

Writing for Success by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

NFAR Proposal Submittal Form

Content Analysis: Method to Analyze Social Life Through Words, Images

Colin Hawkins/Getty Images

Content analysis is a research method used by sociologists to analyze social life by interpreting words and images from documents, film, art, music, and other cultural products and media. The researchers look at how the words and images are used, and the context in which they are used to draw inferences about the underlying culture.

Content analysis can help researchers study fields of sociology that are otherwise difficult to analyze, such as gender issues, business strategy and policy, human resources, and organizational theory.

It has been used extensively to examine the place of women in society. In advertising, for example, women tend to be portrayed as subordinate, often through their lower physical positioning in relation to the males or the unassertive nature of their poses or gestures.

History of Content Analysis

Prior to the advent of computers , content analysis was a slow, painstaking process, and was impractical for large texts or bodies of data. At first, researchers mainly performed word counts in texts of particular words.

However, that changed once mainframe computers were developed, providing researchers with the ability to crunch larger amounts of data automatically. This allowed them to expand their work beyond individual words to include concepts and semantic relationships.

Today, content analysis is used in a huge number of fields, including marketing, political science, psychology, and sociology, in addition to gender issues within society.

Types of Content Analysis

Researchers now recognize several different types of content analysis, each of which embraces a slightly different approach. According to a report in the medical journal Qualitative Health Research , there are three different types: conventional, directed, and summative.

"In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, the analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. Summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context," the authors wrote.

Other experts write about the difference between conceptual analysis and relational analysis. The conceptual analysis determines how often a text uses certain words or phrases, while relational analysis determines how those words and phrases relate to certain broader concepts. Conceptual analysis is the more traditionally used form of content analysis.

How Researchers Perform Content Analysis

Typically, researchers start by identifying questions they would like to answer through content analysis. For example, they might want to consider how women are portrayed in advertising. If so, the researchers would choose a data set of advertising—perhaps the scripts for a series of television commercials—to analyze.

They then would look at the use of certain words and images. To continue the example, the researchers might study the television ads for stereotypical gender roles, for language implying that women in the commercials were less knowledgeable than the men, and for the sexual objectification of either gender.

Content analysis can be used to provide insights into particularly complex subjects like gender relations. It does, however, have some disadvantages: it's labor-intensive and time-consuming, and researchers can bring inherent bias into the equation when formulating a research project .

research proposal for content analysis

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Search Engine Land » SEO » How to use ChatGPT for keyword research (with actual prompts)

How to use ChatGPT for keyword research (with actual prompts)

Learn specific keyword research applications for chatgpt, plus a framework for incorporating the tool into your seo processes..

If you’ve used ChatGPT for any period of time for tasks like creating content for SEO , you’ve likely noticed a few things:

All of these things are true when using ChatGPT for keyword research . To help you navigate the process, let’s explore:

You’ll leave this article with specific keyword research applications for ChatGPT, plus a framework for incorporating the tool into your SEO processes.

How to use ChatGPT for keyword research

An important thing to understand off the top: ChatGPT does not have access to search volume and other metrics the way keyword tools like Google Keyword Planner, Ahrefs and Semrush do.

That said, ChatGPT can be highly useful for several keyword research functions.

Keyword brainstorming and topic ideation

One downside to traditional keyword research tools is that your competitors (and often more authoritative sites than yours) are using the same tools and targeting the same keywords . 

As you build out a list of topics and keyword targets, the right ChatGPT prompts can help you find largely untapped pockets of keywords.

{Topic} for dummies

If I were starting a website about pickleball and wanted to get some broad ideas for what to write about, I could use some creative prompts to get ideas from ChatGPT on where to start:

ChatGPT topic for dummies

Obviously, this isn’t a list of keywords, but it could function as a general site structure and gives me ideas for keyword clusters to build.

{Topic} conference agendas

Similarly, asking ChatGPT for conference topics targeting a specific persona in my niche provides some interesting ideas:

ChatGPT conference agendas

Quick and dirty competitive research

ChatGPT doesn’t have the most recent data and isn’t a comprehensive keyword research tool. But it can help me gain a quick sense of a niche’s competitive landscape and get started with high-level ideas:

ChatGPT for competitive research

Plus, more ideas for different topics and sub-niche:

ChatGPT for competitive research

Social media and influencer research

I can continue to get a lay of the land in this niche by looking at social media accounts on platforms like Twitter:

ChatGPT for social media and influencer outreach

Though keep in mind this data is from the GPT-3 training set, which isn’t current. Twitter also paused access as of December 4, 2022:

Not surprising, as I just learned that OpenAI had access to Twitter database for training. I put that on pause for now. Need to understand more about governance structure & revenue plans going forward. OpenAI was started as open-source & non-profit. Neither are still true. — Elon Musk (@elonmusk) December 4, 2022

I can also look at Reddit:

ChatGPT and Reddit

This can be even more useful if you dive a little deeper:

Specific Reddit topics

The output is great as specific angles for articles or FAQs.

You can also get a quick view of influencers and thought leaders:

Search for social influencers

Then I can dive into more topic ideas and learn the topics they tweet and talk about:

Thought leaders and topics

Next, I can start to pull this all together by combining prompts and asking ChatGPT to give me a summary of its research:

ChatGPT combining prompts

I’ll be honest: I run a lot of ChatGPT prompts, and some of the output is infuriatingly bad.

However, if you hired a VA to spend a few hours researching a niche and asked them to give some high-level topic and category ideas for a new site, it would be acceptable if they came back with this.

Brainstorm actionable keywords

We now have interesting high-level category and “sub-niche” data. So how do we convert that into an actual list of target keywords?

ChatGPT can’t give you estimated search volume and keyword difficulty data. While they aren’t perfect metrics, you can waste time and resources if you’re “flying blind.”

We can use ChatGPT to prepare a list of “seed keywords” to run against our favorite keyword tool:

ChatGPT seed keywords

Depending on what you get back, you can then refine:

Refining keyword lists

Next, I used a prompt to clean up the list (“Perfect, take these keywords and convert them into a list of just the keywords that I can easily copy and paste.”) and dropped them all into Ahrefs, looked at matching terms, and filtered for terms with a keyword difficulty of 5 or lower for my new site:

Ahrefs keywords

Now that I have some terms with difficulty and search volume, I can go back to ChatGPT to help add some information for these terms:

ChatGPT prompt with difficulty and search volume

The output is pretty impressive:

ChatGPT output with difficulty and search volume

Now, I can also get some other interesting keyword data on my new list of terms by asking, “Can you tell me how many posts are in each sub-topic and how many fit into each level of search intent?”

ChatGPT output - categorized intent

Many times you may balance your content output across categories, business lines and support for different tools or products. This is a handy way to sum up that information quickly.

Keyword list generation, expansion and cleanup

Finding specific keywords to target and appending different modifiers to your terms to grow your list are critical aspects of keyword research.

A common application is to generate a list of geo-modifiers and marry those with a target term:

ChatGPT geomodifiers

You can also get a list of size modifiers and apply that to different terms:

ChatGPT generate list with size modifiers

The output has some interesting ideas:

ChatGPT keyword list generation

If you have some seed lists of modifiers, the mash-up process can be even more straightforward here.

Page-level keyword research

Many tools will create content briefs and grades for your content based primarily on what’s currently ranking well in search engines. I use multiple of these tools in my day-to-day work, and they can be pretty expensive. 

We can use ChatGPT to compare our article to whatever is ranking for specific terms. Again, it is not a native SEO tool, so data will differ from what those tools use. 

Unfortunately, ChatGPT doesn’t crawl URLs (yet), so you have to copy and paste both your article and the article ranking first into the chat to have it analyze them. This can be a pain since the character limit is 2,000 words.

ChatGPT page-level keyword research

And here is the analysis:

ChatGPT page-level - output

And you can get more specific advice with a follow-up prompt:

ChatGPT page-level specific resources

Take advantage of ChatGPT’s ability to remember previous prompts within a specific chat.

Here, I could run through multiple articles ranking on the first page for this search term, ask ChatGPT to pull out themes and common terms used in the headers for each, and then surface the most popular phrases across the articles:

Run Through Multiple Articles 761x600

This is pretty clunky to do manually since some articles or pages will exceed the 2,000-character limit. ChatGPT will try answering you before the content is all posted.

As you can see above, it’s not exactly answering my question. The tools that are specifically designed for this are undoubtedly much slicker.

For a smoother and more scalable experience in prompt-heavy tasks, use the Open AI API. Have ChatGPT generate the code for you:

OpenAI API app

ChatGPT prompts for keyword research APIs 

Reminder : Proceed cautiously when dealing with programmatic APIs that cost money or credits. QA everything the tool spits out.

Another keyword research function for ChatGPT is to help SEOs interface with different keyword tool APIs:

Ahrefs API

For my new pickleball site, I could grab an extensive list of low domain authority sites ranking for some pickleball terms and then run them through this script.

If you’re not very technical, you can get step-by-step instructions and ask the tool how to complete a generic task:

Semrush API

Not relevant for my new pickleball site, perhaps, but if I want to do some keyword research on my data, I can get ChatGPT’s help with the Google Search Console API to find search queries that may need their page or article:


The GSC API isn’t the only way to get keyword data using ChatGPT.

ChatGPT keyword research regular expressions

Like the GSC API, using regular expressions (regex) within Search Console can be a great way to unearth keyword targeting opportunities:

GSC API Regex 732x600

Build your own tools

ChatGPT can instruct you on how to build specific tools for keyword research. (Again, always QA and proceed with caution!)

GSC build your own tools

ChatGPT keyword research QA tips

The examples above demonstrate how valuable ChatGPT can be for keyword research. The price is free to $20 a month, so it is worth trying out.

In my experience, the platform tends to fall flat in three core areas of keyword research:

Here are a few specific suggestions to help: 

Broader ChatGPT keyword research strategies

Caveats aside, SEOs will likely find useful keyword research applications with ChatGPT. Ask yourself these questions to determine how to use the platform best:

Think of ChatGPT as a virtual assistant. Understand that you’re ultimately responsible for the implementation of any data or code it generates. Consider the tasks you need to complete, the things it’s likely capable of and try them out when it makes sense. 

Opinions expressed in this article are those of the guest author and not necessarily Search Engine Land. Staff authors are listed here .

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About the author

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