The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

What this handout is about

Modal verbs (will, would, should, may, can, could, might, must) precede another verb. Modals do not have subject-verb agreement or take the infinitive “to” before the next verb.

This handout shows how modals in academic writing can change a sentence’s meaning into a prediction, suggestion, or a question. Modals can also serve a social function to show uncertainty or politeness. They are especially common in discussion sections of research papers.

How to use this handout

This handout is best used with a piece of writing that benefits from being subjective. Each function alters a sentence’s perspective differently.

Logical possibility: expresses a degree of probability

Before: This is the fastest way to drive to Westwood. After: This might be the fastest way to drive to Westwood.

Ability: shows capability

Before: Riding the bus avoids traffic. After: Riding the bus can avoid traffic.

Necessity: expresses directness in attitude

Before: Wash your hands before preparing food. After: You must wash your hands before preparing food.

Permission: shows politeness

Before: I am going to your office hours. After: Can I go to your office hours?

Strength and frequency of modal verbs

In academic writing , modal verbs are most frequently used to indicate logical possibility and least frequently used to indicate permission. Eight modal verbs are listed under each of the functions they can perform in academic writing, and are ordered from strongest to weakest for each function. Notice that the same modal can have different strengths when it’s used for different functions (e.g., may or can).

Functions of modal verbs

This second table organizes examples of each modal by its use, also including an explanation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Celce-Murcia, Marianne, and Diane Larsen-Freeman. 2015. The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course , 3rd ed. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Creative Commons License

Make a Gift

We use cookies and similar technologies to improve your website experience and help us understand how you use our website. By continuing to use this website, you consent to the usage of cookies. Learn more about our Privacy Statement and Cookie Policy .

George Mason Logo

Modals, words like might, may, can, could, will, would, must, and should are helping verbs that add shades of meaning or “flavor” to the verbs that follow them. This additional meaning may connote possibility, ability, and permission among others:

As the table shows, modals may have several meanings, and the same meaning can be expressed by different modals (e.g., may and can both express permission). Although generally modals with the same meaning can be used interchangeably, they express a slightly different degree of their meaning. As an example, the modals below are ranked according to the degree of certainty/probability:

strong degree of certainty/probability

⬆️    will rain               

        must rain

        should rain         

        may rain         

⬇️    could/might rain

weak degree of certainty/probability

Grammatical Form

Modals are a special type of verbs; they are followed by the base form of verbs (e.g. I should go , she must see , he can swim ).

In addition to the simple form of modals, there are also other forms to express:

past time 1 : modal + have + Past Participle (e.g., may have submitted )

passive voice 2 : modal + be + Past Participle (e.g., could be explained )

action in progress now : modal + be + ing (e.g., may be working )

action in progress in the past : modal + have been + ing (e.g., might have been studying )

1 Can has two forms when used to express ability in the past:

1) could - for the action happening over a period of time: I could swim fast when I was a child.

2) was able to - if it was a single past action: I was able to submit the English paper on time. (=managed to do something)

2 See the handout “Active and Passive Voice” for more information on this topic.

Modals in Academic Writing

General use: Research examining multiple papers reveals that modal verbs are commonly used in academic writing. In fact, they are the third most widely used verb structure after present simple and past simple tense.

Hedges/Boosters: Modals are often used in academic writing to soften, or “hedge”, claims and show tentativeness of result interpretations. Writers use hedges to avoid criticism for being radical or overconfident. Thus, instead of writing “The reason for this change is …”, academic writers may write “The reason for this change might/may/can/could be…”, showing that they admit that many other factors could have influenced the change.

On the other hand, “boosters” are used to strengthen statements when writers want to emphasize their certainty. Thus, must, should , and will can be used to produce such effect: “This will influence our understanding of…”

See the handout “Hedges: Softening Claims in Academic Writing”

Politeness in emails: Certain modals add politeness to speech or writing. This is especially important for writing emails to professors or colleagues since writers do not want to appear demanding or pushy. Using modals such as might, may, could, ca n, and would can help addressees perceive writers as friendly and polite.

Last updated 6/01/2018

Grammar & Style


Accessibility links

site logo

Everyday Grammar: You Had Better Learn Modals!

Everyday Grammar: You Had Better Learn Modals!

Everyday Grammar - You Had Better Learn Modals!

No media source currently available

For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

This week we are going to show you how to give advice using modal verbs . Modal verbs (called modals for short) are auxiliary verbs that express a speaker's attitude and the strength of that attitude. For example, "He should visit Prague."

In this sentence, should is the modal verb, and visit is the main verb.

The simple form of a verb goes after a modal. Do not add the third person "s" to a verb after a modal. It would sound strange to say "He should visits Prague" or "He should to visit Prague." The correct way is "He should visit Prague."

There are about 17 modals in English—grammar experts do not agree on an exact number. Today we will focus on three common modals used for giving advice: should, ought to, and had better.

Using should

Let's start with should . Should has multiple meanings. It can be used to express certainty , such as, "He should be here by five o'clock." Should can be a substitute for the conditional word if . You might hear someone say, "Should you need help, just ask me."

But more often, we use should to give suggestions and friendly advice, such as "You should apply for that job" or "You should try that new restaurant."

The past form of the modal should is should have + the past participle. For example, "I should have brought my wallet." Notice that the main verb brought is in the past participle form. Use should have to express regret, or a negative feeling about the past. Imagine you trusted someone and that person later cheated on you. You could say, "I should have known better than to trust him." The Beatles used the expression in a popular song.

I should have known better with a girl like you That I would love everything that you do And I do Hey hey hey

Using ought to

The next modal we will talk about is ought to . Ought to is another modal for giving advice. Sometimes ought to sounds more like "otta" as in this romantic song by Al Green.

Sit back down and talk to me About how you want to be You ought to be with me Yeah you ought to be with me

Ought to is similar in meaning to should , but it is not used as often. In modern American English, ought to is seldom used with the past tense or in the question form.

Using had better

Let's move on to had better . Had better is stronger than should and ought to . Had better carries an indirect threat. For example, if you said, "You had better finish the report," you are not making a polite suggestion. You are making an indirect threat. In other words, if you don't finish the report, you are in trouble. Authority figures sometimes use had better when speaking to people below them. Parents also use this form often.

Listen to cartoon character Malory Archer. Malory is the head of a spy agency. People think she is arrogant and heartless. Listen to her tone when she uses had better .

Oh for—I'll send up some help. And Missy, you had better watch it!

As you can hear, Malory is not making a polite suggestion. She is threatening someone in a lower position.

Had better is not always impolite, it could express a sense of urgency as in, "Your plane is leaving! You had better run!" In other words, "If you don't run, you will miss your flight." Had better has no past tense or question form.

Modals in rapid speech

Should, ought to, and had better can be difficult for English learners to hear. Native speakers often shorten these words in casual conversation. In rapid speech, modals seem to disappear because they are shortened and often fall on unstressed syllables .

We will read some examples for you. The first sentence will be in slow, careful speech. Then we will read it again in rapid, informal speech.

I should have been listening to what she had to say. I shoulda been listenin' ta what she had t' say. You ought to be ashamed of yourself. You otta be ashamed of yourself. You had better decide what you want to do. You'd better decide whatcha wanna do.

That's all the advice we have for you today. There is much more to learn about modals. We will cover them in more detail in future episodes. Until then, you should practice modals with British punk band, The Clash.

Darling you've got to let me know Should I stay or should I go If you say that you are mine I'll be here till the end of time So you've got to let me know Should I stay or should I go

I'm Pete Musto.

And I'm Jill Robbins.

Adam Brock wrote this story for Learning English. Dr. Jill Robbins was the editor.


Words in This Story

modal verb - a verb (such as can, could, shall, should, ought to, will , or would ) that is usually used with another verb to express ideas such as possibility, necessity, and permission

auxiliary verb - a verb (such as have , be , may , do , shall , will , can , or must ) that is used with another verb to show the verb's tense, to form a question, etc.

attitude – n. the way you think and feel about someone or something

certainty – n. the state of being or feeling about how likely it is that something will happen

conditional – adj. showing or used to show that something is true or happens only if something else is true or happens

past participle - the form of the verb that is used with "have" in perfect tenses and with "be" in passive constructions

arrogant – adj. having or showing the insulting attitude of people who believe that they are better, smarter, or more important than other people

unstressed – adj. not having an accent

syllable – n. any one of the parts into which a word is naturally divided when it is pronounced

Now it's your turn. Think of a friend that you would like to give advice. Write to us in the comments section. Write two sentences - using should, ought to, or had better - giving advice. We'll give you feedback.

Everyday Grammar: You Had Better Learn Modals!

Everyday Grammar: Modals (Should, Ought To, Had Better)

Everyday Grammar: Words Come and Go in English

Everyday Grammar: Words Come and Go in English

Everyday Grammar: Beating Problems with Adverbs

Everyday Grammar: Beating Problems with Adverbs

Everyday Grammar: Mastering Reported Speech

Everyday Grammar: Mastering Reported Speech

LOGO-LEWA3 (Learn English With Africa) October

English Short Story: THE WILL, with Modals or Modal Verbs, Level B1-B2📝

Papa Dorido was a strong-willed man. His will was made of iron and rarely bent. The old man created his own rules and followed them religiously as if his whole life depended on them. It was rare for him to deviate from his course and when he did, hell broke loose.

Hell broke loose in Papa Dorido’s household when he decided to marry a second wife.

“I won’t tolerate this,” his wife of twenty-five years told him when she heard his intentions.

“I will marry her, whether you want it or not, “ he’d insisted, reminding her that he was the head of the family and he could do exactly as he wished.

Mary, or Mama Dorido as she was fondly called, wished she could turn back the hands of time. Her husband had been adorable when they first met. Then, he had none of that stubbornness that sullied his character now, turning him into a stranger who was willing to inflict the burden of a second wife upon her flail shoulders.

She’d never pictured herself as a first wife. Neither did she dream of becoming a rival to a would-be-mistress that would compete with her for her husband’s attention.

She was yet to discover the measure of Papa Dorido’s will.☹️

Will and Would (Modal Verbs or Modal Auxiliaries such as WILL), Learn English With Africa, February 2021

One morning, when Mama Dorido was sweeping her yard, a young woman arrived. She was tall, light-skinned and wore long braids that reached her waist. A friend of hers had shown her the way to their house, she explained, and she was glad that she’d been able to come all this way.

Mama Dorido listened and stared and couldn’t believe how fate had thrown this young woman in her path. Her beauty was stunning, the older woman judged and appraised and felt threatened at the same time. She wondered why she didn’t muster the courage to tell this girl to go back where she’d come from before the situation became worse.

“You look very tired. Let me offer you some water. You must be thirsty. Will you have some water?” she asked the stranger hastily and dashed to the kitchen without waiting for an answer. When she came back, the young lady had found a sweet spot on the veranda. It suddenly dawned upon Mama Dorido that this temporary visit could turn into a permanent one if she wasn’t careful enough. She could feel her heart pounding and she tried her best not to betray her feelings when she handed the other woman a glass of water.

“We might as well introduce each other,” the young lady started and Mama Dorido tightened her fists because she knew that this was the day when her life was going to change forever.

“You must be Steve’s wife.”

Steve. Steven Dorido. This young lady was calling her husband Steve.

“Yes, I am,” she replied. “Who are you?” she asked in return and the stranger laughed so loudly, Mama Dorido felt ashamed because she knew that there was no joke in her question.

“We should get to know each other because we are going to be co-wives,” the cheeky girl, who could be no more than twenty, spat the truth in her face and Mama Dorido didn’t know how to react. Her motherly instinct wanted her to be protective of this child who didn’t know anything about life. Yet, her wifely side told her that she had to act fiercely and mercilessly towards this rival who was about to endanger her marriage.

As soon as she recovered her spirits she said:

“I can’t let you destroy my marriage. Mr Dorido and I have been married for more than twenty years. This is actually our 25 th -year anniversary. Why do you want to bring sorrow into this blessed union? What’s your name, by the way? Who are your parents? Who is your mother? Do I know her?”

“My name is Joyce and my surname doesn’t actually matter to you, does it? You shouldn’t be worried like that. Why must you worry about people whom you don’t even know?”

Mama Dorido didn’t even know how to answer all those questions. Her own mind was laden with unanswered questions and she wanted Mr Dorido, the coward, to be there so that he could explain why a stranger had had the audacity to storm her house and leave havoc in her wake.

“I can’t answer those questions for you, you know. Steve should be here. If I were you, I’d stop worrying though. I mean no harm and I come with really good intentions. Why don’t we have a cup of tea so that we can talk about our future arrangements?”🤗

May and Might (Modal Verbs such as WILL), Learn English With Africa

“Go away and don’t come back,” Mama Dorido said calmly but her blood was boiling and she wanted to inflict harm upon this person who was hurting her for no reason at all. Yet, her guardian angel told her that she’d better preserve her emotions. May she not see the light of day tomorrow, she cursed but immediately removed the curse because her pastor had told her that it was bad to wish ill on other people, especially our enemies. “We must love one another,” he’d said. That was yet to happen.

“I will come back,” Joyce said joyfully. She stood up and headed for the gate. Mama Dorido watched as the girl’s braids swayed playfully and relentlessly behind her back. “Papa Dorido will pay for this,” the older woman told herself as she stood up and started searching for her broom.

That evening, Papa Dorido arrived earlier than usual. He was carrying two heavy suitcases and he placed them in one of the spare rooms. Mama Dorido was in utter shock. She didn’t want to jump into conclusions but she was staring at the truth.

“Those must be the young woman’s suitcases,” she said and got no answer. Instead, Papa Dorido smiled and his wife felt as if the world was conspiring against her.

“I won’t let you destroy our marriage. I can’t let you do that.”

Papa Dorido did not reply. He asked for his food instead. Mama Dorido went to fetch some nsima and meat stew with vegetables and placed everything in front of her husband.

“Everything will be all right. You just have to accept the situation. Relationships evolve and this will be for the better. You’d better get used to the idea.”

Mama Dorido thought of her four children and how they would think of this new arrangement. Her two boys Khama and Chiku would definitely frown upon their father’s choice but they wouldn’t condemn him. Her two daughters, young as they were, would understand her plight and might feel sorry for her but they couldn’t do anything for their mother. It was up to her to make Papa Dorido change his mind.

Unfortunately, time was against her. Joyce was in such a hurry to fill her shoes that she arrived the following day. She still had her long braids and her wide smile and she sailed into the house with no care in the world because she knew that the master of the house was on her side and nothing could happen to her.😀

SHALL and SHOULD_Modal Verbs such as WILL_Learn English With Africa

Time to Move on

There was no wedding and no official ceremony, yet Joyce settled into her new role with ease. She had a separate wing in the house and managed her own life with her new husband but things were never the same for Mama Dorido. She resented her husband and the choice he’d made with all her mind and heart.

“You should leave him. You can’t stay in this situation,” her best friend advised her. “It’s better to live with less money than suffer under the hands of such an inconsiderate man.”

Mama Dorido would not think of ending it all. She believed in marriage and staying with the person you loved no matter the hardships that one went through. Would it be wise to leave everything behind her just because a twenty-year old girl had captured the eternal interest of her husband? Hadn’t she worked hard all her life to reach where they were? Would it be wise to leave everything she had fought for for this brainless girl who knew nothing about the world?

Yet, the brainless girl had ensnared her husband and she had taken over her life, destroying her dreams and her once-perfect life.

Life continued under the bright sun and the thin moon and soon, Joyce was expecting Papa Dorido’s first child. Mama Dorido lost hope about getting her former life back. She understood that this wasn’t a mere whim and that her husband was to share. She accepted the situation and the new wife. Life must go on, she told herself.

Therefore, Mama Dorido vowed to help her rival whenever she could. She told herself that she could turn this situation into a positive and productive one and that nothing but good would come out of all this.  Thus she helped her whenever she could and in fact, she found out that that wasn’t difficult at all.  It was actually Mama Dorido who accompanied Joyce to the hospital to give birth. Afterwards, the women’s friendship was sealed and no one, even Papa Dorido, could come between them to ruin their friendship.

One day, the two women were sitting on the veranda, chatting peacefully and tending to some chores at the same time. Papa Dorido arrived early from work and found his wives sitting together. He took a chair from the house and placed it a bit far from them but within hearing distance.

“My dear wives, I have a special favour to ask from you. May I tell you something that will change how things work in this house? However, don’t worry. It’s for the common good.”

Mama Dorido studied his face and knew that nothing good would come out of that mouth. He was yet to drop another bomb.

“I would like to marry a third wife.”

Joyce started wailing and Mama Dorido reached out to her and started patting her back, reassuring her that her life didn’t depend on Papa Dorido’s and that she’d be better off on her own.

“What is that you want Papa Dorido? Aren’t two wives enough for you?” Mama Dorido finally asked her husband who didn’t give a single care in the world. He rather looked at her pensively, already thinking about life with his future wife.

“It is not a crime to have three wives.”😮

Can and Could (Lesson on Modal Verbs)

A Battle of Wills

He spat on the ground and cast a disdainful glance at Joyce who was still crying.

“Stop whining,  will you?” He didn’t get the response he wanted so he stood up unceremoniously and stormed out of the compound.

“I will marry a third wife and there is nothing you can do about it.”

The two women watched helplessly as Papa Dorido disappeared once again only to return the following day with two heavy suitcases, a girl who could be barely eighteen and a one-year old child.

“Meet my son.”

Mama Dorido said nothing and the eighteen-year-old said nothing and the child said nothing.

“Shall you say something?” he asked and finding no answer he summoned the new wife into her new house and helped her find new quarters.

Later that evening, the two first wives summoned some courage and went into the house to discover what had transpired in their absence.

“From now on,” Papa Dorido declared. “Mimi will be sleeping in what used to be Joyce’s quarters. Joyce, ask Mama Dorido to find you a new place to sleep.”

Joyce awoke from her slumber and started yelling at Papa Dorido.

“Should I throw you out?” Papa Dorido asked and warned her at the same time. “Do you want to find yourself begging in the streets?”

Joyce shut up and yet remembered how Papa Dorido had been so sweet and considerate when they’d just met. He would visit her house where she used to live with her parents every single day. Now, he was discarding her like a piece of rubbish and she did not understand.

“I shall never trust any other man again,” she told herself bitterly and cast sorrowful looks at her new born who was nestled in her right arm. Joyce pictured her future. “She will be a doctor,” she told herself. “My daughter will be a doctor and she shall not follow her mother’s footsteps. I can make this work. I will make this work.”

The two women did not feel jealous when it came to Mimi. They felt sorry for her because they knew what her fate would be in a matter of weeks or months.

Papa Dorido was a contented man. He had three wives and six children and nothing could ruin his happiness, even the sour looks that he often caught on Joyce’s face.

Mimi was happy in her own way too. She had a roof above her head and her son had a father and new-found half-brothers and half-sisters. Life was finally good for her even though she was ‘supposedly’ married to a man who was old enough to be her father.😨

MUST (Modal Verbs or Modal Auxiliaries such as WILL)_Learn English With Africa_February

Life Goes on

She had another son with Papa Dorido and another one. Life couldn’t be any better. Her children were a joy to see. They were beautiful and intelligent and they could do so many things. They made Papa Dorido happy.

Yet, Papa Dorido would need one more wife and two more children to be finally contented with life. Yet, life had other plans for him.

Life finally caught up with him and his day of reckoning came. He feared he was about to make his final curtain call. His wives were surprised to see him arrive early from work, shivering and crying because he was not feeling well, not at all.

“Can you make me some tea please?”

Joyce rushed to prepare him a cup of his favourite Chombe and Mimi rushed to his side, making him as comfortable as he could be.

Jackie, Papa Dorido’s latest wife started wailing because she was young and she could not handle the emotional toil.

Papa Dorido told his wives to gather around him because he had an important message for them.

“I’m not getting a new wife,” he joked when he saw the worried looks on their faces.

“I’m afraid I might not last long in this world. I have lived a long life and you have all made me happy in your own way. I now have to depart this world and I want to leave it peacefully and with a clean conscience .”

Jackie wailed even louder and she could not be consoled. Mama Dorido told her to keep quiet because Papa Dorido had something important to say. When Jackie’s crying subsided, Papa Dorido continued.

“First of all, my dear wives. Thank you for your patience all these years and thank you for your support. I don’t know what would have happened if you had decided to leave me. May you live long lives so that you can take care of our children.”

“You will remain with us Papa Dorido. You won’t go anywhere else,” Mimi said as she held his hand and wished that her husband would remain with them forever.

“It is a tough world out there and I don’t want you to suffer when I’m gone. I’ve carefully thought about each one of you,” he coughed and painfully pulled out a piece of paper from his pocket. “Can you read this Mama Dorido?”

Mama Dorido was surprised but she took the piece of paper anyway. She started reading its contents.

“At the event of my death, I would like my property to be equally shared among all my children and their mothers because they have been such a source of joy and contentment to me.”

His wives stared at him and said nothing. It was Mama Dorido who broke the silence.

“Thank you Papa Dorido for taking such a wise decision. I never thought you would come to your senses one day, but here you are.”

Papa Dorido coughed and waited for Mimi to speak.

“Life has not been easy but we have learned to live with each other. Your decision will make us live peacefully together when you are no longer with us.”

In fact, Papa Dorido did not die that day nor the next. He lived long after this salient moment, long enough to take in a fifth wife who bore him three more children as Mama Dorido and her co-wives watched helplessly from afar. That’s a story for another day though. Would you love to hear it?😮‍💨

Listen to the story:

Further exploration: (the will).

Download worksheets:

Watch: The Story Behind ‘THE WILL’

Are you enjoying our courses?

See other advanced stories (b1-b2) , grammar lessons.

2 Responses


Indeed! Thank you for your comment.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.

See our newest resources:

Talk About the Weather in English (Talk About the Weather_Learn English With Africa_English Vocabulary Lesson_February 2023)

English Vocabulary (Lesson 2): Talk About the Weather with Creative Expressions, Level A2-B1-B2

Learn how to talk about the weather in exciting ways! We have got a variety of vocabulary and expressions for everyday situations. Charts available for download! Level A2-B1-B2

Describe Your Natural Environment (English Vocabulary) Level A2-B1_Learn English With Africa

English Vocabulary (Lesson 1): Describe Your Natural Environment, Level A2-B1-B2

Learn how to describe your natural environment extensively with this exceptional vocabulary. The level is from A2 to B2. Happy learning!

Thumbnail_The Power of the Verb WANT_1.4._English Grammar_Learn English With Africa, 2023_A2-B1

The Power of the Verb WANT—Helping You Make New and Realistic Goals in 2023 (Level A2-B1)

Learn how to make powerful New Year’s resolutions using the verb WANT. This is a thorough grammar lesson for intermediate learners. Detailed worksheets and charts available for download.

Our Best Christmas Stories

Our Best Christmas Stories (Level A2-B1)

Get ready for this festive season with our best Christmas stories. These are mostly beginner to intermediate short stories and they are packed with Christmas Vocabulary.

by Thandi Ngwira Gatignol

Inspired by African Culture from Malawi

Thandi Ngwira Gatignol (Learn English With Africa)

If you have any questions, contact me and I will  be glad to answer them!  I usually reply within 24 hours so check your spam inbox as well.

Thandi Ngwira Gatignol, Content Creator

Contact form

© 2021 All Copyrights Reserved By Learn English With Africa.

Privacy Policy

Terms of Service

Web design: Digital Dumpling

The Hidden Life of Modal Verbs

A linguist explains why we get so distracted by the fiery language of politics, while ignoring urgent information reported by scientists.

Neon text on the side of a building reads "All we have is words, all we have is worlds."

Between California’s megafires and the troubling extremist talk of recent elections , it’s a scary time no matter where you’re from . Meanwhile, the scariest news of all according to the latest U.N. I.P.C.C. report, that we have only a scant twelve years left to limit carbon emissions before we’re toast , has registered barely a whimper from the general public, despite the fairly conservative science-based consensus and careful communication behind it. Gravity is not just a good idea, it’s the law, as the joke goes. But scientists often seem to have trouble conveying the true gravity of things to the general public. Why?

The answer is not simple—these are complex issues. We are often distracted and motivated to act by the fiery language of populism but somehow ignore urgent information that could profoundly affect millions of lives when reported by scientists. Populists, of course, don’t arise in a vacuum, they need the right social context to gain traction. Politicians also happen to be quite good at clever rhetoric and repetitive messaging. Science has the rough end of the stick with the need for obscure jargon that’s harder for the lay person to understand. Scientists are just not as expert at telling stories the way people need to hear them. What many are looking for right now, during difficult times, is simple certainty, not nuance. This is reflected in the kind of direct, simple-to-understand language that the mass of people are drawn to. It’s also exactly the kind of language that conscientious scientists don’t tend to use.

As well as all these factors at play, it’s interesting that it can take just a simple element of grammar, boiled down, to make the difference between language that is powerful, and language that seems more uncertain—and perhaps even unbelievable: the boring old modal verb.

You might think nothing can be more grammatically dull and unremarkable than the closed set of function words we call modal verbs, like can, may, must, will, shall and more secondary modal verbs like could, might, ought to, would and should . But using them can have an outsized effect on how information is received by others, and subsequently even how we judge the speaker, their credibility and competence, without actually changing the content itself. Rather than being well-behaved classroom monitors helping the main verbs of a sentence, they are in fact linguistic rebels with an attitude problem.

Modals are weird verbs, syntactically defective in that they don’t inflect like regular verbs , and their very presence essentially messes up simple, direct statements by introducing very confused human feelings of uncertainty, possibility, obligation, permission, and ability into the mix.

Compare a sentence like “she’s the murderer” to “she must be the murderer” or “she might be the murderer.” The first is an ordinary declarative, that could be true or false but sounds objective. In the second and third, the speaker suddenly breaks the fourth wall and intrudes into the statement with their own uncertain beliefs (such as “I’ve deduced from other evidence she’s the murderer” or “I think it’s likely she’s the murderer” ), even though the content hasn’t really changed. The presence of modal verbs such as “must” and “might”  suddenly injects the speaker and their imperfect judgements into an objective statement, adding a certain kind of nuance, making them seemingly weaker and more tentative, opening it up for further questions. It makes it clearer that what seemed at first to be an objective statement is in fact from the point of view of the speaker.

But it gets worse. Not only do modals make declaratives sound less sure of themselves, they are also often semantically ambiguous, which messes up how you might read them. For example:

In these examples, the interpretation of  “must”  can only really be resolved by the context of the utterance itself, as Alex Klinge points out, rather than depending on just the lexical semantics of the word. (And how are we to understand an utterance like “you must try some of this delicious cake!” which pretends to be a requirement but isn’t really).

Modals can have multiple meanings, ambiguous readings (depending on context) and can even overlap with each other to mean the same thing in speech. Take the infamous grammar rule that  can I is for asking about ability while may I is for asking permission. In common practice the two overlap and can (or may) mean the same thing. As a result of these semantic shifts over time, linguists have been confused about how to adequately categorize them into their core meanings,  especially as in pragmatic communication they can often behave in messy, complex ways. This can certainly add to the general uncertainty and weakness that utterances with modal verbs are received than those without.

Declaratives without modals (or other linguistic hedges such as “I think,” “possibly,” etc.) have this straightforward objective power, even if the content is untrue. Compare sentences like “criminals have invaded our neighborhoods” vs. “the devastating floods that may have resulted in hundreds of deaths  could have been due to climate change.” The presence of modals introduces nuance and opens up discussion. Depending on the modal verb used, the speaker can choose to convey varying degrees of certainty, for example the modal verb  “will” as in “an average global temperature rise of two degrees celsius will result in higher death rates” has often been assessed by researchers as having the highest certainty , while a modal verb like “might” sounds much less sure.

The register of populist politics is  definitive, repetitive, memorable messaging. Your typical politician or civil servant, however, may use longer, obscurer constructions with hedging to avoid being challenged on certain claims. A good example is the elegantly manipulative politician Frances Urquhart’s classic line from House of Cards, “you might very well think that, I couldn’t possibly comment,”  chock full of modal verbs with a side helping of plausible deniability. We’re used to thinking that someone using this kind of language is probably untrustworthy, with something to hide. In fact, some studies have shown that when people use linguistic hedging, like modal verbs, to temper how sure they are of something, they can be perceived as  less credible, competent and authoritativ e, and more powerless in formal environments like the courtroom.

Despite this, researchers have noted that scientific and academic writing often contains quite a lot of linguistic hedging, such as the use of modal verbs, in the very environment that seems to call for powerful conviction and clarity. Though style and grammar guides sometimes advise scientists to avoid using modal verbs in their work to reduce ambiguity and misinterpretations of what are otherwise evidence-based and often precise findings, scientists and academics can’t seem to help but use them liberally . Some studies have even cautioned that modal verbs and other hedges may cause other researchers to misreport results when citing them .

So if modal verbs are just going to introduce ambiguity and obfuscation, and make people assume you don’t know what you’re talking about, or worse, that you have something to hide, why even use them?

Get Our Newsletter

Get your fix of JSTOR Daily’s best stories in your inbox each Thursday.

Privacy Policy   Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message.

To many, real language is about saying what you mean. That means using the literal, logical, lexical meanings of words. Direct speech and plain speaking is often valued in a way that indirect speech is not, regardless of whether the content is true. I’ve heard from some frustrated folk recently who view indirect speech as a kind of passive aggressive behavior designed to manipulate. Yet indirect speech acts, such as someone answering “I’m too tired” to refuse an invitation, or a superior saying “That’ll be all” to a subordinate as an imperative to leave the room, are very common ways we use to express social politeness and face saving as we negotiate power relationships. As much as we want to assume otherwise, language (as well as science) in practice is messy and often not logical when it comes to using spoken language.

It’s important to understand that language is not just about the bare content of what we say, but also the interpersonal and social functions of how we say it. As an example, I once said “I might go now,”  meaning I had every intention of leaving and an American friend immediately joked “ Might you? Don’t you know if you are?”

This dialectal difference is important, especially as modal usage has changed greatly over time . Although an American might read the sentence as oddly weak and unsure, a British or Australian English speaker understands that, in a certain context, there’s another subtle nuance here: an indirect form of cooperative politeness. As in, “I intend to leave now… unless you have some reason why I shouldn’t.” This is also true of Appalachian English’s multiple modal constructions , which Margaret Mishoe and Michael Montgomery show are often used when the social situation calls for negotiating politeness, indirectness and saving face, as in this exchange:

[Customer:] […] the car is driving fine. I’m just a little concerned and I thought you MIGHT COULD know right off what it is […].

[Repairman:] […] We MIGHT COULD’VE overlooked something.

The interpersonal aspect of how we use things like indirect speech acts, hedges, and modal verbs in some ways is more important than the literal lexical meaning itself. Crucially, modals and other hedges and indirect speech are commonly used by all of us  to indicate a kind of cooperative politeness and reduce face threatening acts (as well as for other purposes, such as when one is unsure or trying to avoid saying something). Scientists increasingly understand, perhaps in a way that the public doesn’t yet, that using hedging language is often necessary to conscientiously convey more accurate degrees of certainty. This doesn’t mean, however, that their findings should be dismissed as not authoritative. That allows for scholars to be more collegial and circumspect in presenting work, which may often challenge and pick apart the previous work of colleagues. Modal verbs used in hedging open up debate, and allow researchers to be more measured about the true certainty of their findings and conjectures, as few things in science are a hundred percent absolute.

So this is not to say that scientists presenting their work should aim to speak in short, definitive statements, because stating something as a fact doesn’t make it true. It’s good to be aware that linguistic hedging, even when it comes to your basic modal verb, may erroneously encourage the public to believe that an expert is unsure of what they’re talking about because of how this language is sometimes viewed in other environments such as politics and the courtroom… but it is exactly this careful and nuanced language of science that we should value and seek to understand.

JSTOR logo

JSTOR is a digital library for scholars, researchers, and students. JSTOR Daily readers can access the original research behind our articles for free on JSTOR.

Join Our Newsletter

More stories.

Zaha Hadid, 2013

The Evolution of Zaha Hadid, Architect

Marie Bashkirtseff, 1878

Marie Bashkirtseff’s Diary

Bessie Smith poses for a portrait circa 1924.

The Flood Behind Bessie Smith’s “Back-Water Blues”

The covers of Oscar Hijuelos’s The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love (1989), Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker (2004), and Junot Díaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (2007).

American Immigrant Literature Gets an Update

Recent posts.

Support JSTOR Daily

Modal Verbs

Modal verbs of permission, requests and offers.

Modal Vers for Permission, Requests and Offers

We use ‘can’, ‘may’ and ‘could’ to ask and give permission, make a request and offer help. Read this article to learn how to use them correctly.

Modal Verbs for Obligations: Statements

Modal verbs ‘must’ and ‘have to’ can be used to talk about obligation. Read this article to understand the difference between them and how they are used.

Modal Verbs: Overview

Confused about what modal verbs are and how to use them? Learn how to use verbs like can, should, could, must, shall, and might.

Modal Verbs for Ability

The modal verbs ‘can’, ‘could’ and ‘be able to’ show ability. Read this article to learn what they mean and how to use them correctly.

Modal Verbs for Suggestion and Advice

When we want to give advice, we can choose between should, ought to, could and had better. Learn the difference between these words.

Modal Verbs for Deduction

May, might, could and must are modal verbs for making deductions. In this article, you’ll learn how to use them correctly.

Modal Verbs for Possibility

May, might and could are modal verbs to express possibility. In this article, you’ll learn how to use them in different tenses.

Modal Verbs for Obligations: Negative and Questions

Modal verbs of obligation can be used in negative sentences and questions. Read this article to understand the difference between ‘mustn’t’ and ‘don’t have to’.

Modal Verbs for Necessity (“Need”)

The verb ‘need’ expresses necessity. It can be used both as a modal and a main verb. Read this article to know about the usage and see the examples.


Short articles

A student diary project improving literacy skills and wellbeing

Nov 03,2022

"Apart from developing literacy, it has also had a positive impact on students who have had a pleasant experience while going through the pandemic." In this reader submission, Anisah Khoridatul, Grade 6 Teacher SD Ar-Ridha Al Salaam, Depok, shares the details of a student diary project in place at the school.

Renewing students’ motivation to learn through a Retreat Program

Sep 28,2022

In this reader submission, teacher at SMA Lokon St. Nikolaus Tomohon in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Martha Goni, shares the details of a Retreat Program the school has implemented, and the positive impact it is having on Year 12 students.

The impact of preschool attendance on student outcomes at school in the Philippines

Aug 31,2022

A recent longitudinal study in the Philippines has followed a cohort of 4,500 public elementary school students for 5 years. The study found that children who attended preschool consistently outperformed those who did not in literacy, mathematics and social-emotional skills.

Effective use of virtual reality to improve student outcomes in Science

Jul 20,2022

New research has shown that while the use of immersive virtual reality (IVR) increases student enjoyment and presence in a task, when used on its own it does not improve procedural or declarative knowledge when compared to the more traditional learning activity of watching a video.

Pandemic teaching – evaluating and improving students’ reading skills

Jul 18,2022

Education systems across the world have taken different approaches to addressing the challenges of the pandemic. Jaylene S Miravel – a teacher at Lal-lo North Central School in the Philippines – shares how she is supporting students who are falling behind in reading during this prolonged period of remote learning.

Making mathematics more engaging and relevant for students

May 18,2022

Satyam Mishra was one of two educators from India to make it into the prestigious Global Teacher Prize Top 50 for 2021. In today’s article, he shares practical examples for making mathematics more engaging and relevant for students.

A framework for learning through play at school

May 04,2022

A new framework for learning through play has been developed to support teachers in the classroom and help guide policy and practice in the early years of schooling. The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) and the LEGO Foundation have worked together to develop the framework.

A new approach to personalised learning

Apr 20,2022

Students have a diverse range of personal and contextual factors that influence their access to and achievement in their education. A new global study calls for a re-evaluation of education systems to promote personalised education.

Job interviews – dealing with rejection

Apr 05,2022

After investing a lot of time and emotion into applying for a new job or promotion, finding out the position is not yours can have a negative impact on your confidence. In this reader submission, Dr Poppy Gibson and Dr Robert Morgan from the UK share their three steps for moving forward after being an unsuccessful candidate for a new position.

‘Megatrends’ affecting the future of education – 10 questions to ponder

Mar 16,2022

How can you and your colleagues help students better prepare for the challenges and opportunities they’ll face in the future? A major new report looks at the global ‘megatrends’ shaping education. We’ve picked out 10 discussion points and suggestions for possible learning activities to inspire you and your colleagues, and get the conversation started.

Your browser is not supported

Sorry but it looks as if your browser is out of date. To get the best experience using our site we recommend that you upgrade or switch browsers.

Find a solution

short article that have modals

Verbs and tenses

Modal verbs 1 – article

By Kerry G Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield

An article by Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield on ways to approach teaching modal verbs.


This old joke plays on different interpretations of can . The student is asking for permission, whereas the teacher is talking about ability. Some people might say that the student’s use of can is incorrect (i.e. the student should say May I go to the bathroom ?). This view, however, is based on a very narrow understanding of modality and modal verbs in English.

in this article we take a closer look at modal verbs. We begin by looking at their function in English and exploring basic properties. We then go on to look in more detail at the most common uses of the important modal verbs can, could, will and would . In article Modal verbs 2 , we complete the story by covering may, might, must, should and ought to.

Modal verbs in English

As well as making simple statements or asking questions, we may sometimes want to express our intentions and attitudes, talk about necessity and possibility, or make offers, requests, or suggestions. In English, these uses of language are usually expressed by a set of verbs called   modals. Modals always occur with other verbs, and can be thought of as a special kind of auxiliary verb, e.g.

Can I borrow your umbrella?

The most commonly used modals in English are:

can / could / will / would / may / might / must / ought to / should

Modals are mainly used when we want to indicate our attitude to what we are saying, or when we are considering how what we say will affect the person we are communicating with. Compare:

She’s the oldest. vs. She might be the oldest.

(Here the modal shows that the speaker is not absolutely sure that the statement is true.)

Close the door. vs. Could/would/will you close the door?

(Here the modals turn an instruction into a polite request.)

Some basic characteristics of modals

a) Modals are always followed by the base form of the verb, e.g.

I might play tennis tomorrow.

You ought to tell her.

Sometimes a modal is followed by the base form of auxiliaries have or be , followed by a participle, e.g.

I might be playing tennis tomorrow.

You ought to have told her.

In passive structures, a modal is followed by be  or have been and a past participle, e.g.

She ought to be disqualified.

The door might have been locked.

b) Modals never inflect, i.e. they have no –ing or –ed forms, and do not take –s in the third person singular present.

Note: the modal form could is sometimes thought of as the past tense of can when it refers to the ability to do something, e.g.

Louise can read. = Louise could read when she was three.

and also in reported speech, when the modal form would is also thought of as the past tense of will :

'Jackie can come.' = She said that Jackie could come.

'You will be late.' = I told her that she would be late.

c) Unlike other verbs, modals do not use do and did to form negatives. Negatives are formed by putting not immediately after the modal, except in the case of ought to , where the negative form is ought not to (which is sometimes abbreviated to oughtn’t to ). The negative of can is written as one word cannot , more usually shortened to can’t . Shall not and will not are abbreviated to shan’t and won’t respectively. Could not and would not usually appear as couldn’t and wouldn’t , e.g.

I might not play tennis tomorrow.

You ought not to tell her.

She can’t come.

We won’t be ready until five.

d) Modals do not use do and did to form questions. Questions are formed by placing the modal before the subject. In the case of ought to , ought is placed before the subject and to after it, e.g.

Can she speak Spanish?

Ought you to tell her?

Wouldn’t he help you?

When will and would are used after a pronoun, they are often shortened to the contracted forms 'll and ’d and joined to the pronoun, e.g.

I’ll help if you want.

I’m sure she’ll agree.

It’d be better if you told her yourself.

Can and could: ability

Modal verbs can and could are used to show that someone has the ability to do something. Can is used for the present, and could is used for the past, e.g.

Tom can play chess.

I can’t pick the box up, it’s too heavy.

Louise could read when she was three.

I stood on a chair, but I still couldn’t see.

Can and could: permission

Can and could are also used to express the idea of giving or asking for permission to do something, e.g.

Sometimes can and could are used to talk generally about permission, rather than giving it or asking for it. In this sense, can is used for the present and could is used for the past, e.g.

There’s a sign saying that you can’t park in front of the station.

I can stay up until nine. Mum said so.

We couldn’t keep pets when we lived in the flat.

There was a time when you could park your car anywhere.

Can and could: possibility

a) Can and could are often used to suggest possible future actions.

You can/could go on the train if you prefer.

Note: can expresses a more definite possibility than could , eg:

b) Could is often used to say that something is or was possibly true, e.g.

He could be working late tonight.

It could be difficult to get there in time.

She could have missed the last bus.

c) Can is sometimes used to say that something is generally possible:

Smoking can seriously damage your health.

Paris can be very hot in summer.

In this sense, can often has the meaning ‘sometimes’, e.g.

Owning a dog can be expensive. (= Owning a dog is sometimes expensive.)

d) Can’t and couldn’t are sometimes used to show that something is or was impossible, e.g.

This can’t be Sam’s coat, it’s far too big.

You couldn’t have seen Simon yesterday, he’s in America.

Will and would: requests

Will and would are often used when making requests, e.g.

Will you give me a lift?

Would you pass me the salt?

Note that would is less direct and sounds more polite than will .

Will and would: intentions

Will is often used to state an intention to do something, e.g.

I’ll talk to you later.

We’ll call you when we’re ready.

We won’t leave without you.

It can also be used to talk about someone’s willingness to do something, e.g.

Ask Sarah if she’ll take them.

I’ve asked her, but she won’t come.

Wouldn’t can be used to show that someone was unwilling to do something in the past, e.g.

I asked her, but she wouldn’t come.

Will and would: habits

Will and would are sometimes used to describe habits or characteristic behaviour. Will is used for habits or behaviour in the present and would is used for habits or behaviour in the past, e.g.

Every day she’ll come home and immediately turn on the TV.

John is so kind. He’ll always give me a lift if I ask him.

He’d always turn and wave at the end of the street.

In those days people would grow all their own vegetables.

When speaking, will and would in this sense are often stressed in order to criticize someone’s usual behaviour, e.g.

She will keep talking when I’m trying to concentrate.

He just wouldn’t tidy his room when I asked him.

Will and would: certainty

Will can be used to say that something is certainly true, e.g.

There’s someone coming to the door. – Oh, that’ll be the window cleaner.

Louise will be at home by now.

Matthew won’t want to be disturbed if he’s working.

In this sense, will is often followed by be + -ing to talk about what is certainly happening, or have + past participle to talk about what has certainly happened, e.g.

Louise will have arrived by now.

He won’t have tidied the house, he never does.

I expect Matthew will be working in the study.

Kelly won’t be helping, I’m sure of that.

Will and would: unreal situations

Whereas will is often used to make predictions about a real event in the future, e.g.

We’re going to have a few days holiday in Scotland. – Oh, that’ll be nice.

would is often used to make a prediction about an unreal event, i.e. an event which may or may not happen, e.g.

We’re thinking of having a few days holiday in Scotland. – Oh, that would be nice.

In this sense, would often occurs in a sentence with if to talk about what might happen if something else happens, e.g.

What would you do if you lost your job?

Would also often occurs with verbs such as like, love , etc, to talk about what someone wants to do, e.g.

I would like to know more.

We’d love to have twins.

She’d prefer to go to Scotland.

Would have + past participle is used to talk about an unreal situation in the past, i.e. a situation that might have happened, but didn’t, e.g.

Pete would have helped if he hadn’t been unwell.

What would you have done if you’d lost your job?

It similarly occurs with verbs such as like, love,  etc to show what someone wanted to do, but didn’t:

We went to Wales, but Jack would have preferred to go to Scotland.

Lesson Share: Reported speech 1 – article

Photo to illustrate the concept of past.

Past perfect aspect – article

Photo that shows the concept of teaching tips

Past perfect aspect – tips and activities

Present perfect aspect – article, present perfect aspect – tips and activities.


Reported speech – tips and activities

Reported speech 2 – article, the passive in english – article, the passive in english – tips and activities, modal verbs 1 – tips and activities, modal verbs 2 – article, modal verbs 2 – tips and activities, related articles.

Teaching tips and ideas from Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield on teaching modals.

Image on windmills and solar panels

Biden’s clean energy act paves Britain’s way to post-Brexit growth. Should we copy him?

The US and the EU seem to be on the right track towards green energy production. Should the UK and other nations follow suit?

No comments yet

Only registered users can comment on this article., more support for teaching grammar.


Nouns and phrases

Our experts provide a compendium of tips and ideas for teaching nouns, prepositions and relative clauses in English.

Articles, tips and activities on teaching adjectives, from our panel of expert authors.

Tips and ideas from Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield on teaching reported speech.

Join onestopenglish today

With more than 700,000 registered users in over 100 countries around the world, Onestopenglish is the number one resource site for English language teachers, providing access to thousands of resources, including lesson plans, worksheets, audio, video and flashcards.

Onestopenglish is a teacher resource site, part of Macmillan Education, one of the world’s leading publishers of English language teaching materials.

©Macmillan Education Limited 2020. Company number: 1755588 VAT number: 199440621

Site powered by Webvision Cloud

Modal verbs

Learn about modal verbs and their different meanings and do the exercises to practise using them.

Level: beginner

The modal verbs are: 

We use modals to show if we believe something is certain, possible or impossible :

My keys must be in the car. It might rain tomorrow. That can't be Peter's coat. It's too small.

We also use them to do things like talk about ability , ask permission , and make requests and offers :

I can't swim. May I ask a question? Could I have some tea, please? Would you like some help?


Hell, In reading 19th century prose, I have often come across a strange usage of "would". Take for instance the following sentence: "Even on a small scale, how often will it happen that the term best corresponding to a new world in the original will be one that in our language is already old and worn out, so that the translator, would he show the work's contribution to the development of the language, will be forced to introduce foreign content into the passage, deviating into the realm of imitation!" Am I right to think of "would he show" to mean "if he wants to show"? Also, under what subtopic in modals can I find more about this usage?

Hi Ahmed Nidal,

Yes, that's right. The meaning of "would" here is the desire to do something, and this meaning is rarely used today. The conditional meaning ("if") comes from the subject/modal inversion, rather than from "would".

It is meaning 2.8 on this Wiktionary page . I hope that helps.

LearnEnglish team

Thank you Jonathan. Much appreciated. Ahmed

Hello Sir, "We may have to live with the coronavirus." 1. In this sentence 'have' is main verb or it is modal verb(have to) 2. Can we place two modal verbs (may & have to) together 3. Further, 'to' is attached to 'have'(have to) or it is attached to 'live'(to live)

Hello Mordhvaj,

The main verb in this sentence is 'live'.

'May' is a modal verb. 'Have to' is sometimes called a semi-modal verb in that it has some elements of modality but not others. The wikipedia page for modal verbs describes it thus:

...there are numerous other verbs that can be viewed as modal verbs insofar as they clearly express modality in the same way that the verbs in this list do, e.g. appear, have to, seem etc. In the strict sense, though, these other verbs do not qualify as modal verbs in English because they do not allow subject-auxiliary inversion, nor do they allow negation with not. Verbs such as be able to and be about to allow subject-auxiliary inversion and do not require do-support in negatives but these are rarely classified as modal verbs because they inflect and are a modal construction involving the verb to be which itself is not a modal verb. If, however, one defines modal verb entirely in terms of meaning contribution, then these other verbs would also be modals and so the list here would have to be greatly expanded.

It is possible to use a modal verb before 'have to', but it is not possible to use 'have to' before a modal verb. Thus, 'we may have to...' is fine, but *'we have to may...'* is incorrect.

We describe the form as have to + verb rather than have + to verb . The 'to' is still included when the verb is omitted:

We need to leave for the party. Is it really important I go? Yes, you have to. No complaining!

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Sir, I feel honoured to have my question answered by you. Point by point you have cleared each and every doubt of mine. I have always been a big fan of your answers. It is almost a miracle to have one's answer 'succinct' and 'detailed' simultaneously; and you are a wizard who can do that miracle. Thanks🌹

Hello Mordhvaj,

It's nice of you to say so. We're a small team here but we try our best!

Hello, thanks for the grammar. I have a question in relation to adverbs of frequency, and modal verbs. These two sentences: They could never divide us. They never could divide us. Which one is grammatically correct? Also are there some situations you could use the second one, and it would be correct? Thanks.

Hi Howard Manzi,

Thanks for your question :) They are both grammatically correct. The typical position is as in sentence 1, between the modal verb and the main verb. Sentence 2 is grammatical too, but the position of "never" seems to make it more emphatic than in sentence 1. Somebody may say this if they really want to emphasise "never".

"Never" can also be emphasised by putting it as the first word in the sentence (this also needs an inversion of subject and modal verb):  Never could they divide us .

I hope that helps.

Thanks. I appreciate it.

"May" has PERMISSION meaning also "Might" has?

I found this following question on this web page.

->I know you're busy, but MIGHT I ask you a quick question? (and right answer of meaning is PERMISSION)

I understood that "MIGHT" doesn't have PERMISSION meaning. So I am confused..

Hello Jiwon LEE,

As is explained on our 'may' and 'might' page , 'might' can be used to ask for permission in a very polite way.

This use is quite rare in ordinary speaking and many grammars don't even mention it. 'may' and 'can' are far more commonly used.

All the best, Kirk The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan, I would like to ask for your help and hope you're available to answer me this time.

If someone gives me a present, I might say :

(A) How could you have known it was my birthday today ?

[1] Does the use of "could have known" in this sentence express surprise about how he could know that today is my birthday ? Or [2] Is it a conditional sentence with the implied if clause that is not mentioned ? For example :

(B) How could you have known....if my mother had not told you ? (No surprise is conveyed here)

[3] If we can use this pattern to express surprise, can we say this sentence ?

(C) I don't know how the thief could have known the key code, but he did (= I'm surprised how he got to know the key code).

[4] To express surprise in examples (A) and (C), can we change "could have" to "can have" ?

I would really appreciate your explanation. Thank you.

Best regards,

Hello melvinthio,

(A) is grammatically correct, but in the situation you describe in [1], a more natural statement would be 'How did you know it was my birthday today?'. Both (A) and my suggestion could certainly express surprise, though they don't necessarily do so. Even if you thought the gift giver was giving you the present for a different reason, I still don't think they'd use a sentence with 'could have known' here.

Your analysis of (B) in [2] sounds correct to me, though I don't think the grammar tells us anything about surprise. It could express simple curiosity, though it certainly can also be used to express surprise.

Similar to (A), a more natural way of saying (C) is 'I don't know how the thief knew ...' (assuming we can see evidence of the thief knowing this), but (C) is also possible here. I'd understand it to express some degree of surprise, but I don't think it has anything to do with the grammar, but rather the situation.

I think the difference between the two situations is that in (A), we see the action with our own eyes -- we've seen the person giving the gift or somehow know it came from them. In contrast, in (C), we see the result of the thief's actions -- an open safe -- but haven't seen the thief open it. It also more possible for another person to discover our birthday than it is for a thief to open a safe (at least to my mind).

As for [4], no, 'could have' better expresses the idea of an unlikely possibility. Perhaps 'can have' would be possible in some unusual situations, but in most cases and certainly in the way I've imagined them now, it wouldn't work.

Hope this helps.

Hii, I am Manish. One of my teachers told me modal are ( be and Have ) Be has 3 forms BE =1. Is/am/ are 2. Was/ were 3. Been You are a teacher. I am a student. You were a child 10 years ago. I was a child too.

Have = possession I have a car.= I have got a car.

Was he right?

Hello Manish,

Modal verbs are verbs like should, can, could, might, will etc.

'Be' and 'have' are not modal verbs. They are normal verbs but can also be used as auxiliary verbs to form questions and other forms.

Base form - be  ~  have

First form (present) - am/is/are  ~  have/has

Second form (past) - was/were  ~  had

Third form (past participle) - been  ~  had

For possession, have and have got are alternatives.

You can read more about the verb 'be' on this page:  

Can I use articles with collective noun ? (a,an,the)

Yes, you can :) If you have any questions about it, you can post them on our Articles page.

Hi everyone, is the following sentence correct? I can English.

When can it be accepted? Thank you so much!

Hello mivu,

No, I'm afraid 'I can English' is not correct in any context I can think of.

It's possible to say 'I can' or 'I can do' in a short answer , but the direct object of the verb is omitted in short answers.

Hey there Well, every modal verb will be followed by another verb, which is missing in that statement. It might be the verb "to speak". I can SPEAK English.

Hello. I have a question. Why is WOULD considered a modal verb? As I understand, WOULD has no meaning as the other modals verbs. It has a function, which is to make the sentence conditional. And if it is considered, why the other auxiliaries are not? Thank you very much for your help.

Hello MRamos,

' would ' actually has a number of uses beyond its use in second conditional structures -- for example, it can be used to make polite requests, or to talk about frequent past events. In older styles of English, it was also used to express desires, though this is almost never heard these days.

In general, modal verbs add different kinds of meaning to a statement -- for example, certainty, possibility or obligation. I'd suggest having a look at our Modal verbs page, where you can see more on this, and you might also find the Cambridge Dictionary Grammar's page on Modal verbs and modality useful.

I couldn't have explained it better. Amazing!

Hello Mussorie,

There is no difference in meaning here. In this and similar constructions you can use either the object pronoun or the possessive adjective with the -ing form. Both are in common use and are acceptable but I think the form with the object pronoun ( me ) is more informal and less likely to be used in formal contexts.

You can read a brief discussion of the topic here:

In both 1 and 2, you are reporting that the thing you imagined has been confirmed, but the verb form in 1 suggests that someone else was doubting your supposition.

In the other sentence, 'will have started' is used because the time reference point is the present time (6:00). We use 'would' to speak about the future from the perspective of the past, but the time reference point here is present. The beginning of the match in the past is suggested, but not stated.

All the best,

Hello Nevı,

No, I'm afraid that doesn't work. Normally the verb forms in reduced relative clauses replace non-modal verbs, usually in the present continuous, present simple or past simple.

Best wishes,

Hello Hemam,

'would' (and 'wouldn't') can be used to express unwillingness, in other words, the idea that someone or something doesn't want to do something. So in the first sentence, the idea is that the car didn't want to start. Most people don't actually believe that a car has desires, but sometimes when we feel we are unlucky, we speak this way to show the feeling of being unlucky. Other than this, these two sentences mean the same thing.

The sentence about Reddington could mean that we think he would never tell us this in any circumstance (here 'would' refers to hypothetical situations) or, if it's speaking about the past, it could mean that Redding refused to tell us. Which meaning it has depends on the context.

Hi Ahmed Imam,

Might  is the correct option.  Might  means there is some uncertainty about whether he will help you or not, and we know that the speaker is uncertain since he/she says 'I am not sure'. 

Will  doesn't fit here, because it means the speaker is certain.

Hello Ahmed Imam,

Both sentences look fine to me and I don't see any difference in formality. Without any context there's no way to say which would be more suitable.

1) Yes, you could add a phrase with by to the sentence:

Donations to charities can be offset against tax by both private individuals and companies.

2) Active voice does not work here as the donations are the object of the verb offset . The person paying tax offsets the donations.

I think have to is the most likely choice here as the question is about an external rule rather than a self-imposed obligation.

Both forms are possible here. If you imagine what Tina said then both don't forget and won't forget are possible:

I'll give you a shopping list so you won't forget anything.
I'll give you a shopping list so you don't forget anything.

It may seem strange to use the present simple ( don't forget ) with future meaning here, especially when 'will' is used in the first clause, but there are certain contexts in which this is possible: in sentences like the one above and after the phrase 'in case', for example.

Hello again Nuro,

It's actually a common feature of English. Remember that English does not have a grammatical future tense, but rather uses different grammatical structures to express future time: present forms (simple and continuous), modal verbs (including 'will'), going to and even past forms (for hypothetical futures).

You can read more about expressing future time on this page:

And you can read about verbs used in time clauses here:

Yes! It is possible to use  hasn't got to for this meaning, and your sentence is correct. But,  hasn't got to  is less commonly used than  doesn't have to .

In questions, that's right - we can use  Has she got to ...  instead of  Does she have to  ... .

Hello meylin,

They're similar but a bit different. You can read a bit more about 'must' and 'mustn't' in the Obligations section of our Suggestions and obligations page, but basically they express the idea that it is necessary to do something ('must', e.g. 'You must wear a mask on the bus') or that it is necessary not to do something ('mustn't', e.g. 'You mustn't be late'). Notice that it's not clear whether we actually do the action that is considered necessary (or not necessary) -- the rule is that we wear a mask on the bus, but maybe we don't actually do that.

A sentence with causative 'make' is similar in that it expresses obligation, but it also shows that the action was performed. For example, 'I must do my homework' means I need to do my homework, but it doesn't mean that I did it. But 'My father makes me do my homework' clearly shows that I do my homework.

Does that help?

short article that have modals

What Are Modal Verbs?

Matt Ellis

Modal verbs show possibility, intent, ability, or necessity. Because they’re a type of auxiliary verb (helper verb), they’re used together with the main verb of the sentence. Common examples include can , should , and must .

Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing shines? Grammarly can check your spelling and save you from grammar and punctuation mistakes. It even proofreads your text, so your work is extra polished wherever you write.

Give your writing extra polish Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly

Modal verbs can be tricky, especially when it comes to using them in a sentence. The good news is that they’re simple once you learn how they work. Below, we explain everything you need to know to use modal verbs with ease. 

What are modal verbs?  

Modal verbs are used to express certain hypothetical conditions, such as advice, capability, or requests (there’s a full list in the next section). They’re used alongside a main verb to change its meaning slightly. Because they’re auxiliary verbs, they can’t necessarily be used on their own. (A modal verb should only appear alone if it’s clear from context what the main verb is.) 

Consider the difference between these two examples: 

I swim every Tuesday. 

I can swim every Tuesday. 

The first example is a simple factual statement. The speaker participates in a swimming activity every week on Tuesdays. 

The second example uses the modal verb can . Notice how the meaning changes slightly. The speaker does not swim every Tuesday; they’re saying they are capable of swimming every Tuesday if they need to. It’s hypothetical. 

Modal verbs are quite common in English, and you’ve probably seen them hundreds of times without actually knowing their name. The most frequently used ones are: 

There are more modal verbs, although the ones above are the most common. Some modal verbs are outdated and rarely used—like shall and ought to —while others are more colloquial—such as got to, need to , or have to . Some express very specific conditions that don’t come up often, like dare , for example, “I dare say.” The phrase used to , as in “I used to be an English student, too,” also behaves like a modal verb. 

When are modal verbs used?  

What special conditions do modal verbs show? Here’s a list of when to use modal verbs, along with examples: 

Some things seem likely, but we don’t know for sure. In these cases, you can use the modal verbs should and must to show probability without certainty. 

Her parents must be so proud. 

My baby brother should be asleep by now. 


In situations when something is possible but not certain, use the modal verbs could , may , or might . 

Judging by the clouds, it might rain today. 

She may become the youngest pro soccer player ever. 

The modal verb can shows whether or not the subject is able to do something, such as perform an action or demonstrate an ability. Likewise, the negative form, cannot or can’t , shows that the subject is unable to do something. 

She can speak three languages, but none of them well. 

You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink. 

Asking permission

If you want to ask permission to do something, start your question with can , may , or could . Traditionally, in more formal and polite usage, may is better for permission; if you ask “can I go to the bathroom?” it could be misinterpreted as, “do I have the ability to go to the bathroom?” (However, in modern usage may and can are both perfectly acceptable options when describing possibility or permission.)

May I leave early today? 

Could I play too?

Similarly, if you want to ask someone else to do something, start your question with will , would , can , or could . 

Would you get that box off the top shelf? 

Will you turn that music down? 


What if you want to recommend something, but not command it? If you’re giving suggestions or advice without ordering someone around, you can use the modal verb should . 

You should try the lasagna. 

That guy should wear less cologne. 

On the other hand, if you want to command someone, use the modal verbs must , have to , or need to . 

You must wash your hands before cooking. 

You need to be here before 8:00. 

Obligation or necessity

Modal verbs can express a necessary action, such as an obligation, duty, or requirement. Likewise, the negative form expresses that an action is not necessary. Use the same modal verbs as with commands: must , have to , or need to . 

We have to wait for our boss to arrive before we open. 

You don’t need to come if you don’t want to . 

To show an ongoing or habitual action—something the subject does regularly—you can use the modal verb would for the past tense and will for the present and future. The phrase used to is also acceptable if you’re talking about a habit that no longer exists. 

When I lived alone, I would fall asleep with music. 

I will arrive early and leave late to every meeting. 

How to use modal verbs (with examples)

Luckily, using modal verbs in a sentence is pretty simple. For basic sentences—the simple present tense —just remember these rules: 

So, if you want to brag about your ability to eat an entire pizza, you take the infinitive form of “eat” without “to”—which is simply “eat”—and add the modal verb “can” in front of it. The rest of the sentence continues as normal. 

I can eat an entire pizza. 

For questions, you still use the infinitive form of the main verb, but the order is a little different: 

[modal verb] + [subject] + [main verb]

So let’s rephrase the example above as a question:

Can you eat an entire pizza? 

Because modal verbs largely deal with general situations or hypotheticals that haven’t actually happened, most of them are in the present tenses. However, some of them can be used in different verb tenses , so let’s talk a little about how to construct them. 

Present tenses

We already covered the simple present above, but you can also use modal verbs in the present continuous and present perfect continuous tenses. 

Present continuous

After the modal verb, use the word be followed by the – ing form of the main verb. 

[modal verb] + be + [verb in -ing form]

I should be going. 

Present perfect continuous

You can add a modal verb before a verb in the present perfect continuous tense without changing much. However, when using a modal verb, you must always use “have,” never “had,” even if the subject is third-person. 

[modal verb] + have been + [verb in -ing form]

She must have been sleeping. 

Past tenses and present perfect

Putting a modal verb in the simple past , past continuous , and present perfect tenses is a little trickier. 

For starters, two modal verbs in particular have a simple past tense: can and will . If you want to use either of those in any of the past tenses, you must first conjugate them into their past-tense form: 

All the others remain the same, although some can’t be used in the past at all. Modal verbs often deal with hypotheticals, but if an action already happened in the past, it can’t be hypothetical. These are mostly for speculating about the past, such as wondering “what if . . .”

None of the modal verbs can be used in the past perfect or past perfect continuous . 

Simple past

Of the main modal verbs listed at the top, only can and will can be used in the simple past. Have to and need to can also be used, as long as they’re conjugated accordingly as had to and needed to . Other modal verbs use the present perfect to discuss events in the past. 

Can and will use their past tense form plus the infinitive form of the main verb without “to,” just like in the present. 

could/would + [verb in infinitive]

I could do a handstand when I was a kid. 

During exam season in college, I would not sleep much. 

Past continuous

Again, only can and will can be used in the past continuous. It’s formed just like the present continuous, except with the past form of the modal verb. 

could/would + be + [verb in -ing form]

I could be working right now. 

Present perfect

Instead of using the infinitive form of the main verb, just use the present perfect form, which is “have” plus the past participle. As before, you must always use “have,” even if the subject is third-person. 

If you’re using can , be sure to use its past tense form of could . 

[modal verb] + have + [past participle]

I might have gone to the party, but I forgot. 

Future tenses  

The truth is that most of the future tenses already use modal verbs because they use “will.” If you want to use different modal verb, such as “can” or “should,” you can use it normally with the infinitive form of the verb, and without will . 

I can hang out tomorrow. 

Should I major in law next year? 

short article that have modals

We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings .

short article that have modals

Journal of Linguistics

Article contents

The core meanings of the english modals.

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 November 2008

Analyses of word-meaning can usually be divided into those which assign a meaning to a word IN ISOLATION FROM a specific context of use, and those which regard the meaning of a word as being largely, if not entirely, DEPENDENT UPON a specific context of use. The ultimate expression of the latter ‘polysemantic’ approach is probably that of the later Wittgenstein who argued that ‘every difference in a word’s use is a consequence of and evidence for a difference in its meaning’ (Wertheimer, 1972: 49). One recent example of the former ‘monosemantic’ approach is that of Bolinger (1977) whose stated purpose is to ‘reaffirm the old principle that the natural condition of a language is to preserve one form for one meaning, and one meaning for one form’ (p. x); also, the proponents of lexicalism are likewise ‘monosemantic’ in inclination in that they stress the primacy of lexical units over the syntactic relations which exist between them. Both these approaches have their advocates, and it should be stated at the outset that neither is necessarily right or wrong; each can only be judged according to whether the phenomena it is used to interpret are thereby illuminated.

Access options

Crossref logo

This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by Crossref .

View all Google Scholar citations for this article.

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure [email protected] is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle .

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox .

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive .

Reply to: Submit a response

- No HTML tags allowed - Web page URLs will display as text only - Lines and paragraphs break automatically - Attachments, images or tables are not permitted

Your details

Your email address will be used in order to notify you when your comment has been reviewed by the moderator and in case the author(s) of the article or the moderator need to contact you directly.

Conflicting interests

Please list any fees and grants from, employment by, consultancy for, shared ownership in or any close relationship with, at any time over the preceding 36 months, any organisation whose interests may be affected by the publication of the response. Please also list any non-financial associations or interests (personal, professional, political, institutional, religious or other) that a reasonable reader would want to know about in relation to the submitted work. This pertains to all the authors of the piece, their spouses or partners.

Modal Verbs in English

Definition and examples.

In English grammar, a modal is a verb that combines with another verb to indicate mood or tense . A modal, also known as a modal auxiliary or modal verb, expresses necessity, uncertainty, possibility, or permission.

Modal Basics

Struggling to understand how modal verbs function in English is entirely normal as their range of applications is quite broad. Even advanced students and native speakers struggle to use these irregular verbs from time to time.

With that said, practice is important and the best place to start is by finding out which verbs are considered modals. There are two types of modal verbs: pure modals and semimodals . There are also modal phrases.

Pure Modals

Pure modals never change their form regardless of subject and don't change to show past tense. These verbs can express certainty or suggestion. Pure modals are followed by a bare infinitive, an infinitive verb without "to". See below for examples. ​

Most linguists agree that there are 9 pure or core modals in English:

Unlike other auxiliaries , common modals have no -s , -ing , -en , or infinitive forms. Modals such as "ought" that require a "to"-infinitive complement are regarded as marginal modals, also called semimodals.

Semimodals or marginal modals are used to imply a range of possibilities, obligations, necessity, or advice. Notice that these verbs can be conjugated by subject and tense.

The four semimodals generally agreed upon are:

Some experts also include have (to) and be able (to) in this list.

Modal Phrases

To further complicate an already confusing subject, phrases with modal meaning can be constructed without the use of a standard modal or semimodal verb. Sometimes, other verbs and phrases—including  had better and  invariant be —also function as modals or semimodals.

Modal Usage and Examples

Modals are commonly used to express your degree of certainty about an outcome or the possibility of something. When using modals, keep in mind that they should always appear first in a verb phrase. Consider these two examples:

In the first example, the speaker is making a statement as if it were a matter of fact. In the second example, the statement implies a degree of uncertainty that excuses the speaker from an obligation.

The same modal verbs that can be used to express only some certainty or possibility can also express absolute conviction and resolve, which makes mastering modals tricky. For example, consider the modal verb should go and how it's used in this sentence:

This modal is now expressing a strong degree of obligation. The speaker knows they need to go to the bank if they're going to get there before it closes.

Famous Quotes

As you become more proficient in English, you'll discover just how frequently modals are used. Take a look at these examples from famous people.

short article that have modals

short article that have modals

short article that have modals

By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.

Taylor and Francis Online homepage

Language, Culture and Curriculum

English articles and modals in the writing of some batswana students.

Sample our Language & Literature journals, sign in here to start your FREE access for 14 days

Original Articles

What syntactic patterns emerge in students’ use of articles and modals? What are the reasons for these patterns? What implications do the findings of the study have for English language instruction in Botswana? Exactly 1556 essays comprising class assignments, written seminar presentations, test papers and examination scripts from 514 randomly selected students of the University of Botswana were analysed. The findings indicate that there were systematic omissions, substitutions and insertion of the definite and indefinite articles as well as recurrent use of the expression can be able. Students’ indication of different forms of epistemic modality was confined to the use of could while complex verb phrases involving negation had their constituents reordered such that the negative operator not consistently succeeded the perfective auxiliary. The study shows that the reasons for these errors are both intra- and interlingual, namely the complexities of the two grammatical structures, articles and modals, and the influence of L1. Since the Botswana Senior Secondary Assessment Syllabus specifies ‘accuracy’ in the use of grammatical forms, by demanding high language achievement standards, this paper argues that a return to the teaching of basic grammar in the high school is important for the students’ mastery of articles and modals.

Reprints and Corporate Permissions

Please note: Selecting permissions does not provide access to the full text of the article, please see our help page How do I view content?

To request a reprint or corporate permissions for this article, please click on the relevant link below:

Academic Permissions

Obtain permissions instantly via Rightslink by clicking on the button below:

If you are unable to obtain permissions via Rightslink, please complete and submit this Permissions form . For more information, please visit our Permissions help page .

Related research

People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read.

Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine.

Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations. Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab.

Your download is now in progress and you may close this window

Login or register to access this feature

Register now or learn more

short article that have modals

Become a Tutor and Earn Money Online!

Modals – definition, examples, types, and usage.

Modals – Definition, Examples, Types, and Usage

What Are Modals?

Modal verbs examples, types of modals.

Use of Modal Verbs and Example Sentences

Find Top Tutors in Your Area

short article that have modals


5 letter words that start with a

January 04 ,2023

Characteristics of living things

January 02 ,2023

facts about periodic table

December 29 ,2022

5 letter words starting with d

December 14 ,2022

5 letter words ending in it

5 letter words starting with e

5 letter words starting with k

5 letter words starting with h

5 Letter Words Ending with EAT

5 letter words ending with t

December 09 ,2022

Recent post.

Offer Ends in

Hire an Expert Tutor in Just $9.8/hr

Form Submitted Successfully

No, I Don't Want to Avail This Offer

Recent Blog Articles

3 ways to create community and counter loneliness

Helping children make friends: What parents can do

Can electrical brain stimulation boost attention, memory, and more?

Palliative care frightens some people: Here’s how it helps

Parents don't always realize that their teen is suicidal

Shift work can harm sleep and health: What helps?

Seeing a surgeon?

Ketamine for treatment-resistant depression: When and where is it safe?

Energy-boosting coffee alternatives: What to know

What is frontotemporal dementia?

COVID-19 Archive

Does COVID-19 damage the brain?

Does COVID-19 damage the brain?

COVID-19 can damage the brain in many ways. Initially, it can cause brain inflammation that causes confusion, difficulty concentrating, and memory problems. COVID also can cause new psychological disorders such as depression or anxiety. It can even cause people to see and hear things that aren’t there and to believe things that aren’t true. COVID often damages the brain’s autonomic nervous system, leading to abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, the virus that causes COVID can infect and injure the lining of blood vessels and make blood clot more easily, which can lead to strokes and heart attacks.

Vaccination may protect against long COVID

Vaccination may protect against long COVID

Getting at least one dose of a COVID vaccine lowers the risk of developing long COVID even among people who were previously unvaccinated and recovered from COVID.

Genes protective during the Black Death may now be increasing autoimmune disorders

Genes protective during the Black Death may now be increasing autoimmune disorders

Genes that helped people survive during the time of the Black Death are more likely to be found in people with autoimmune diseases alive today. Does this tell scientists anything about what surviving the COVID-19 pandemic might mean for the world’s population?

Want to stay healthy over the holidays?

Want to stay healthy over the holidays?

Another holiday season is here, and this year we need to contend with other viruses besides COVID-19. Three Harvard experts share their thoughts on the best ways to keep ourselves and our family members healthy as we celebrate holidays together.

High blood pressure linked to severe COVID despite vaccination

High blood pressure linked to severe COVID despite vaccination

A 2022 study found that high blood pressure more than doubled the risk of being hospitalized from an Omicron-variant COVID-19 infection regardless of full vaccination, including a booster dose of an mRNA vaccine.

Is the COVID-19 pandemic over, or not?

Is the COVID-19 pandemic over, or not?

Infections and deaths from COVID-19 are still occurring every day in the US, although many people are acting like the pandemic is over. So is it over, or not?

Why life expectancy in the US is falling

Why life expectancy in the US is falling

Life expectancy is one measure of the general health of a population. In the US, life expectancy had been climbing for more than a century — until the pandemic. After dropping in 2020, it dropped again in 2021, and some population groups fared worse than others.

Vaccines against the flu and COVID-19: What you need to know

Vaccines against the flu and COVID-19: What you need to know

Autumn is when infectious respiratory diseases start to spread more readily. That’s why October is the ideal time to boost your immunity against the viruses that cause flu and COVID-19.

More fallout from COVID-19

More fallout from COVID-19

Hair loss is common in the months after recovering from COVID-19 infection. It can also happen in people with long COVID or because of mental stress from the pandemic. COVID-related hair loss is a form of telogen effluvium, a condition in which normal hair shedding ramps up after intense physical or mental trauma. Hair regrowth usually takes six to 12 months. People can speed and support hair regrowth by avoiding harsh hair habits, checking nutrient levels, and applying minoxidil (Rogaine) to the scalp.

Severe COVID infection may lead to noticeable cognitive loss

Severe COVID infection may lead to noticeable cognitive loss

A 2022 study found that survivors of severe COVID-19 infections can develop cognitive problems, such as brain fog or trouble finding words, equivalent to the loss of 10 IQ points or 20 years of aging.

Free Healthbeat Signup

Get the latest in health news delivered to your inbox!

Thanks for visiting. Don't miss your FREE gift.

The Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness , is yours absolutely FREE when you sign up to receive Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School

Sign up to get tips for living a healthy lifestyle, with ways to fight inflammation and improve cognitive health , plus the latest advances in preventative medicine, diet and exercise , pain relief, blood pressure and cholesterol management, and more.

Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School

Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss ...from exercises to build a stronger core to advice on treating cataracts . PLUS, the latest news on medical advances and breakthroughs from Harvard Medical School experts.

BONUS! Sign up now and get a FREE copy of the Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness

short article that have modals

Stay on top of latest health news from Harvard Medical School.

Plus, get a FREE copy of the Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness .

There's a big Girl Scout cookie shortage, and the group is frustrated with its main baker


This is the way the Girl Scout cookie crumbles.

Amid widespread cookie shortages, the Girl Scouts of the USA said they are "keeping all options open" as frustrations mount with one of their baking partners, Little Brownie Bakers, which is owned by Italian confection giant Ferrero.

related investing news

Ford's latest EV blunder increases the odds we'll drop the stock, if there's no progress this quarter

Little Brownie Bakers, or LBB, notified the Girl Scouts on Monday morning that weather-induced power outages at their Louisville, Kentucky, factory, halted cookie production for the weekend of March 5, setting inventory even further back.

The power outages come amid a series of production delays and problems that LBB has cited to the Girl Scouts since January, the beginning of the selling season , according to a person familiar with the matter. In an email obtained by CNBC, Girl Scout executives told local troop leaders that they expected their baking partners to be "more ahead of demand" than LBB has been so far.

The inventory woes have caused a shortage of some cookie flavors that have sent Girl Scout cookie resale prices skyrocketing. Boxes of the newest, limited-edition flavor, Raspberry Rally, are being sold on eBay for $35. Boxes of Girl Scout cookies typically go for $5 a pop.

Little Brownie Bakers has also said that mechanical issues have gotten in the way of production of Samoas, the popular caramel-coconut cookie. This is the third year in a row that the baker has struggled to keep up with cookie production, said the person, who is not permitted to speak about the matter publicly.

"We are extremely disappointed that LBB is again having challenges with managing their production," a Girl Scouts spokesperson told CNBC. "We will address these issues with our baker partner in the future and we are keeping all options open to do right by our girls."

As of this week, roughly 75% of local Girl Scout troops are supplied by LBB and as a result, have not been able to meet their cookie-selling sales goals , which are the largest funding driver for the troops. The other 25% of Girl Scout councils are supplied by ABC Bakers, a smaller baking company that the Girl Scouts say has not had the same production issues as LBB.

To be sure, LBB has shipped more than 84 million packages to local troops and produced more Girl Scout cookies than it had this time last year, said a spokesperson for Ferrero, which makes the Ferrero Rocher chocolate and hazelnut treats.

"Global supply chain issues, local labor shortages, and even unforeseen severe weather have all impacted the selling season, but Little Brownie Bakers is on track to fulfill initial orders," Ferrero told CNBC.

In the meantime, Ferrero said that "teams in our bakery have been working overtime" to ensure that initial Girl Scout cookie orders get fulfilled.

For the rest of the selling season, Thin Mints, Adventurefuls and S'mores are the only remaining cookie flavors available for online purchase from some Girl Scout troops in states such as New York, New Jersey, Georgia, Alabama, Oregon and others . Orders that have already been placed will not be impacted, and customers in the affected areas can still purchase the other flavors in person at local Girl Scout cookie-selling booths.

Ferrero, also known for brands like Nutella and Kinder Bueno, has been on a mission to grow over the past year. In November, it broke ground on a $214 million expansion of its Bloomington, Illinois, manufacturing plant in order to produce Kinder Bueno chocolate in North America for the first time. The company said the Kinder Bueno project led to the creation of 200 new jobs in Bloomington.

In December, it agreed to buy ice cream giant Wells Enterprises , which would widen its North American footprint.


Short-sellers rake in $780 million betting against Silvergate as the crypto-friendly bank closes its doors

Short-sellers have raked in millions of dollars in from the mounting troubles at embattled crypto-friendly bank Silvergate, which has just said it plans to close down.

Investors betting against Silvergate have made about $780 million in mark-to-market profits since November 2021, when its stock peaked, Bloomberg reported Wednesday, citing S3 Partners data. Over the week to then alone, as the crypto bank's struggles became clearer, winning bets against the company pulled in $190 million.

Silvergate said Thursday it will close down , after flagging last week that it could be forced to shutter, thanks to mounting problems such as a pending US Department of Justice investigation into its operations.

 The once go-to bank for the crypto industry was hit hard by the digital-asset rout and the fallout of Sam Bankman-Fried-founded FTX's collapse.

Shares in Silvergate Capital, the bank's holding company, have plunged over 96% in the past 12 months, as more than a dozen crypto firms it has done business with have shut down, been fined, or come under investigation.

The stock was down 46% at $2.65 in premarket trading Thursday, having peaked at over $200 during the height of the crypto boom in 2021. 

Shorting stock typically involves borrowing shares and immediately selling them, with the goal of later buying them back when they fall in price. 

Only about 15% of shares in Silvergate are not sold short, according to S3. That means it's hard for potential short-sellers to bump up their bets.  "The well has run dry," S3's Ihor Dusaniwsky told Bloomberg.

Investors have also been using put options to bet against Silvergate. George Soros' family office disclosed its fund held put options on 100,000 Silvergate shares at the end of December. 

V&M Breakout Update - March 8th: Bear Bounce Fades Into February Breakdown

JD Henning profile picture

Traffic Lights

Jarvell Jardey/iStock via Getty Images

V&M Breakout Update - New Bearish Signals

We have new bearish signals this week for both the broad market of 7,500+ stocks and the S&P 500 ( SP500 ). However, sectors remain mixed while all weakening sharply again.

Momentum Gauge Dashboard

S&P 500 Volatility

So far into 2023, the S&P 500 volatility remains extremely low. We have only had two days this year with over +/- 2% daily moves well below the average last year with nearly four days a month with big moves. I fully expect to see volatility pick up into Q2.

S&P 500 volatility

SPDR S&P 500 Tr ust ETF ( NYSEARCA: SPY ) February-March roadmap shows the continuing breakdown from February negative signal. Bearish stair steps with lower highs and lower lows are likely to continue, with the market heading toward a test of March support levels.

Finviz Chart SPY

The Daily SPY chart shows the breakdown from the early February 3rd signal and again on February 21st. The similarities to the August 2022 topping signal remain strong, as we saw frequent bear bounces on the way to -16.2% declines into September last year.

SPY daily chart

The ETF momentum gauge trading model switches between Bull/Bear combos following the positive or negative signals on the gauges. Members of my service have seen the following returns from the changing signals. These returns are further enhanced following the early warning signals (not shown). The last positive signal was too short to show returns.

ETF Momentum Gauge trading

Long-Term Forecasts for 2023

Forecasts remain unchanged for a bearish outlook based on the impact of QT and rate hikes on markets in all my QT studies from 2018. I have added a new outlook article with the potential for a Debt-Ceiling standoff:

S&P 500 with QE QT intervention

Short-Term Portfolios/Models

The two weekly breakout portfolios are shown below, along with current 2023 returns. The ongoing competition between the Bounce/Lag Momentum model (from Prof Grant Henning, PhD Statistics) and MDA Breakout picks (from JD Henning, PhD Finance) is shown below with/without using the Momentum Gauge trading signal. The per-week returns equalize the comparison, where there were only 16 positive trading weeks last year.

Weekly Breakout returns

Long-Term Buy/Hold Portfolios

Positive Forensic portfolio is leading YTD returns +15.5% but off the highs as Momentum Gauges turn negative.

Long Term portfolio returns YTD

You can find details on the long-term portfolios here:

Fed Balance Sheet Tracker

We can confirm the Fed reported another -$38.1 billion reduction in their balance sheet this week, with totals down more than -$468 billion since the week 21 peak last year with a $1 trillion reduction target. The Fed balance sheet has been reduced back to levels in October 2021. We will get the latest balance sheet update every Thursday after the close.

System Open Market Account Holdings - FEDERAL RESERVE BANK of NEW YORK .

Fed SOMA holdings

Federal Reserve balance sheet reduction, actuals and estimates

The Fed cut their balance sheet another -$38.1 billion last week, with only three weeks with a larger cut since QT started last June. Next update from the Fed is Thursday.

Fed Balance Sheet 2022 / 2023

Daily Momentum Gauge Forecast

The Daily Market Momentum Gauges showing similar bear bounce activity as last August. The larger negative signal has returned after a short positive signal, declining from the highest positive momentum levels since August 2022. We are seeing very similar patterns to the August peak, with potential for negative momentum (dotted line) to reach prior September levels. Last August, the S&P 500 declined -16.2% to the September lows.

Daily Momentum Gauges

Top CFO Insider Buys Versus Sells Last 10 days

The Top 20 CFO buys/sells activity shows extremely low purchase events by all CFOs in the last 10 days. Very few CFOs (8 so far) are buying stocks above the $30k level at what is considered a significant purchase level. The changing levels of buying are used as an early measure for a bullish signal, while selling activity remains extremely elevated and in large amounts in a bearish signal.

Typically, lower CFO activity tends to be a risk-off signal with increased market concern. $30k is a key significance level for best results based on my research : CFO Trading Anomaly: Top Buys Beating S&P 500 By 28% Annualized.

CFO insider activity

I am always monitoring the markets to deliver the best signals and returns, with consistent double-digit annual returns for the past seven consecutive years. I hope this brief overview of our market models and signals helps you. Follow my weekly updates for more.

All the very best!

~ JD Henning, PhD, MBA, CFE, CAMS

short article that have modals

See what members are saying now -  Click HERE

This article was written by

JD Henning profile picture

Welcome! I am a Finance PhD, MBA, investment adviser, fraud examiner and certified anti-money laundering specialist with more than 30 years trading and investing stocks and other securities. I'm the founder of Value & Momentum Breakouts .

I'm JD Henning, the founder of Value & Momentum Breakouts. I've spent decades capturing many of the best ways to consistently beat the markets.   I've earned degrees researching markets, and even more importantly, I've spent the time myself as a trader and investor.  I am one of those unusual multi-millionaire, PhD's in finance, former Coast Guard officer with a bunch of certifications ranging from anti-money laundering specialist, investment adviser, to fraud examiner...  who genuinely enjoys helping others do well in the markets.  I'm bringing the fruits of my experience and research to this service.  I am highly accessible to members to answer questions and give guidance.  

It's been quite the start of the year for investors. My guess is, after a decade of good times in the market, you’re here looking for some guidance in how to navigate these volatile markets and the uncertainty of the coronavirus and inflationary conditions. You’re in the right place. For the past 7 years I’ve made my trading systems public and helped thousands of my subscribers navigate and profit from every market downturn and breakout.   Please be sure to read the reviews of my service from actual members! 

Value & Momentum Breakouts doesn't stop with the Momentum Gauges® and the Bull/Bear ETF strategy. The service is designed for investors who appreciate having easy access to quick picks from many top quantitative financial models across different types of investing strategies.  Portfolios and selections cover all types of investments:

Commodity and Volatility fund trading

Cryptocurrency chart analysis

Long term high-dividend growth stocks

Short term high-frequency breakout stocks

Forensic analysis value stocks

Value enhanced long term growth picks

ETF sector and bull/bear combination trades

Dow mega cap breakout picks

Sector and Index Momentum Gauges® for market timing

I share my expertise by generating frequent Value & Momentum Breakout stock portfolios from the different financial algorithms across peer-reviewed financial literature. 

Disclosure: I/we have no stock, option or similar derivative position in any of the companies mentioned, and no plans to initiate any such positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Recommended For You

Comments ( 2 ).


Charleston, SC (29403)

Cloudy with occasional showers overnight. Low around 55F. Winds SSE at 5 to 10 mph. Chance of rain 60%..

Cloudy with occasional showers overnight. Low around 55F. Winds SSE at 5 to 10 mph. Chance of rain 60%.

Updated: March 9, 2023 @ 5:01 pm

Syndicated and guest columns represent the personal views of the writers, not necessarily those of the editorial staff. The editorial department operates entirely independently of the news department and is not involved in newsroom operations.

Commentary: Short-term rentals benefit both visitors and South Carolinians

Here in South Carolina, we’re known for our hospitality. The warm welcome everyone receives is one of the many reasons travelers from across the globe are drawn to our state, along with our beautiful landscapes, ideal weather and rich history.

When those tens of millions of visitors come to South Carolina, they inevitably need a place to stay. And while our state is home to some excellent hotels, it is always helpful to offer multiple alternatives.

Consider a family of five, including young children, looking to spend their spring break on the beaches of South Carolina. Not only do they need more space than a typical hotel room would offer, they need it to function like their own home would — with bedrooms, shared common areas for playtime and a kitchen to fix dinner on the nights they can’t make it out to a restaurant. For them and many other families, a short-term rental is exactly the solution they need.

This is quickly becoming the case for more and more visitors who choose to vacation in our state. Demand for short-term rentals in South Carolina has increased by 17% annually since 2018, indicating a growing interest in the convenience, unique amenities and affordability of short-term rentals.

The growth of this segment of our tourism industry doesn’t just benefit visitors — it benefits all South Carolinians, too.

The short-term rental industry has led to 50,231 jobs and more than $1.4 billion in labor income for South Carolinians, according to a recent economic impact study commissioned by S.C. Realtors and produced by the University of South Carolina. The annual economic impact on the state from this industry has reached an estimated $4.2 billion.

These statistics are hard to ignore, especially as our state’s leaders rightly put a heavy focus on economic growth. It would be in the best interest of South Carolina’s economy for us to capitalize on this growing demand for short-term rentals and fortify the positive effects this industry has on other business sectors, particularly in areas that might not otherwise see much tourism activity.

As popularity and demand grow, entrepreneurs are seeking out more places to open up short-term rentals to visitors, creating off-the-beaten-path destinations. Many small towns once grappling with dwindling local business are now flourishing thanks to the rise of short-term rentals bringing more customers into the area.

Despite all these benefits, some local governments, under pressure from a vocal minority, are considering putting burdensome restrictions or even outright bans on short-term rentals, which could have devastating economic consequences.

The tangible impact that the short-term rental market has already had in South Carolina is far too precious to jeopardize. Concerns from local homeowners shouldn’t go unheard, but there are plenty of nuanced ways to ensure visitors and full-time residents of any community can coexist in harmony without hastily enacting extreme measures like banning short-term rentals.

S.C. Realtors are committed to protecting this vital economy, which is why we support legislation filed in the S.C. House of Representatives that would prevent municipalities from enacting blanket restrictions on short-term rentals. House Bill 3253 — sponsored by Reps. Lee Hewitt, R-Murrells Inlet, Jay Kilmartin, R-Columbia, JA Moore, D-North Charleston, and Melissa Oremus, R-Aiken — would help ensure that all parties are operating in a fair and responsible manner while also fostering a positive and welcoming environment for tourists.

The bipartisan support for this bill illustrates the importance of short-term rentals to a wide array of communities. We urge the General Assembly to pass H.3253 to protect the interests of business owners and employees in this sector, as well as our state’s critical tourism economy.

South Carolina’s cities and counties shouldn’t aim to eliminate the very accommodations that are drawing people into our state. If these potential visitors can’t build the vacation they want to in South Carolina, they’ll look to our neighboring states. We’d be wise to continue welcoming visitors with open arms into our communities — and let them have the freedom to choose where they want to stay while they’re here.

Rob Woodul  is the president of S.C. Realtors.

Sign up for our opinion newsletter

Get a weekly recap of south carolina opinion and analysis from the post and courier in your inbox on monday evenings., similar stories.

Here in South Carolina, we’re known for our hospitality. The warm welcome everyone receives is one of the many reasons travelers from across the globe are drawn to our state, along with our beautiful landscapes, ideal weather and rich history. Read more Commentary: Short-term rentals benefit both visitors and South Carolinians

Lowry: Our Dickensian border policy leads to migrant kids in punishing jobs

"I became, at ten years old, a little labouring hind in the service of Murdstone and Grinby.” Read more Lowry: Our Dickensian border policy leads to migrant kids in punishing jobs

Hicks: Haley '23 isn't the same as Haley '15. Neither likely wins in '24.

Nikki Haley … Read more Hicks: Haley '23 isn't the same as Haley '15. Neither likely wins in '24.

Commentary: Restaurant add-ons could cost owners more than they bargained for

I've always … Read more Commentary: Restaurant add-ons could cost owners more than they bargained for

Today's Top Headlines

Chef shares why he closed the strip club 104 steakhouse in downtown greer, sc offers $35m to hospitals to build mental health crisis units, 2 brothers — one a deputy, one a juror — play key roles in alex murdaugh murder trial, shock in aiken neighborhood after husband charged with killing wife, jack's cosmic dogs to land again on james island; charleston sunglass shop to open 3rd site, columbia gun maker expansion deal gets initial richland county ok despite concerns, officer-involved shooting in aiken county leads to arrest of local woman; sled called to investigate, former scana executive gets prison time for role in vc summer fraud, can a family bible prove when you were born sc lawmakers ask the question, update: natural gas leak causes fire at whiskey road pizza hut, editor's picks, human waste may end oyster harvesting on the may river. can bluffton clean it up, johns island residents push back on proposed bridge over marsh, new play celebrates life, impact of sc educator and activist septima poinsette clark, featured local savings.


  1. P. Westney, Modals and periphrastics in English: an investigation into the semantic

    short article that have modals

  2. English exercises: Modal Verbs

    short article that have modals

  3. 10 examples of modals, Definition and Example Sentences Here are Englis…

    short article that have modals

  4. Newspaper Examples In The Philippines : Who, what, when, where, why, and how

    short article that have modals

  5. 10 examples of modals, Definition and Example Sentences

    short article that have modals

  6. English Articles For Students / A Magazine Article Learnenglish Teens British Council : A brief

    short article that have modals


  1. लड़के ने चॉकलेट से क्या बना दिया😱||देखिये जरूर😎||#ytshorts#shorts#viral @[email protected]


  3. Modals


  5. #shorts #short #earningapps2023 #bestearningapp

  6. Modal।Can/Could/Could have#@Modals English grammar


  1. All Modals articles

    Article Explanations: Geography Keith Kelly looks at examples of language used in delivering questions and explanations from the area of geography, covering wh- question words, statements as questions, asking for explanations, possibility and uncertainty, explaining a process and conjunction phrases.

  2. Modals

    Modal verbs (will, would, should, may, can, could, might, must) precede another verb. Modals do not have subject-verb agreement or take the infinitive "to" before the next verb. This handout shows how modals in academic writing can change a sentence's meaning into a prediction, suggestion, or a question.

  3. Advice, Modals, and Coronavirus

    Should is a modal that, in the words of grammar expert Betty Azar, expresses advisability. In other words, should tells another person that you are advising them to do something. There are...

  4. The Writing Center

    Grammatical Form. Modals are a special type of verbs; they are followed by the base form of verbs (e.g. I should go, she must see, he can swim ). In addition to the simple form of modals, there are also other forms to express: past time 1: modal + have + Past Participle (e.g., may have submitted) passive voice 2: modal + be + Past Participle (e ...

  5. Modals

    Modals - permission and obligation Do you know how to use modal verbs to talk about permission and obligation? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you. Look at these examples to see how can, can't, must, mustn't, have to and don't have to are used. You can put your shoes and coat over there.

  6. Everyday Grammar: You Had Better Learn Modals!

    For VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar. This week we are going to show you how to give advice using modal verbs. Modal verbs (called modals for short) are auxiliary verbs that express ...

  7. English Short Story: THE WILL, with Modals or Modal Verbs, Level B1-B2

    Papa Dorido was a strong-willed man. His will was made of iron and rarely bent. The old man created his own rules and followed them religiously as if his whole life depended on them. It was rare for him to deviate from his course and when he did, hell broke loose. Hell broke loose in Papa Dorido's household when he decided to marry a second wife.

  8. The Hidden Life of Modal Verbs

    Modals are weird verbs, syntactically defective in that they don't inflect like regular verbs, and their very presence essentially messes up simple, direct statements by introducing very confused human feelings of uncertainty, possibility, obligation, permission, and ability into the mix.

  9. Articles about Modal Verbs

    Articles about Modal Verbs - Modal Verbs Modal Verbs of Permission, Requests and Offers October 6, 2021 We use 'can', 'may' and 'could' to ask and give permission, make a request and offer help. Read this article to learn how to use them correctly. Modal Verbs for Obligations: Statements March 4, 2019

  10. Short articles

    Short articles - Teacher Magazine Short articles 60 total results A student diary project improving literacy skills and wellbeing Nov 03,2022 "Apart from developing literacy, it has also had a positive impact on students who have had a pleasant experience while going through the pandemic."

  11. Modal verbs 1

    Modal verbs 1 - article | Article | Onestopenglish An article by Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield on ways to approach teaching modal verbs. Skip to main content Skip to navigation Macmillan English Onestopenglish Dictionary Help Site name Site name Mast navigation Register Subscribe Sign In Menu Closemenu Home

  12. Modal verbs

    Level: beginner. We use modals to show if we believe something is certain, possible or impossible: My keys must be in the car. It might rain tomorrow. That can't be Peter's coat. It's too small. We also use them to do things like talk about ability, ask permission, and make requests and offers: I can't swim.

  13. Modal Verbs: Definition & Usage Examples

    Modal verbs are used to express certain hypothetical conditions, such as advice, capability, or requests (there's a full list in the next section). They're used alongside a main verb to change its meaning slightly. Because they're auxiliary verbs, they can't necessarily be used on their own.

  14. English Articles and Modals in the Writing of Some ...

    (PDF) English Articles and Modals in the Writing of Some Batswana Students English Articles and Modals in the Writing of Some Batswana Students Authors: Modupe Alimi University of Botswana...

  15. The core meanings of the English modals

    Both these approaches have their advocates, and it should be stated at the outset that neither is necessarily right or wrong; each can only be judged according to whether the phenomena it is used to interpret are thereby illuminated. ... Past tense replacement and the modal system. The Computation Laboratory of Harvard University Mathematical ...

  16. Definition and Examples of a Modal in English

    Modals are commonly used to express your degree of certainty about an outcome or the possibility of something. When using modals, keep in mind that they should always appear first in a verb phrase. Consider these two examples: Kim must be his sister because they look just like each other. I will probably be there, but I can't make any promises.

  17. English Articles and Modals in the Writing of Some Batswana Students

    People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations. Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab.

  18. Modals

    Modal verbs are used in English to show functions like: Possibility Permission Ability Lack of necessity Obligation Probability Prohibition Advice When using modals, remember to use them first in a verb phrase, for example: Kristen must be her brother because they look so much like each other.

  19. All COVID-19 Articles

    Published March 1, 2023. COVID-19 can damage the brain in many ways. Initially, it can cause brain inflammation that causes confusion, difficulty concentrating, and memory problems. COVID also can cause new psychological disorders such as depression or anxiety. It can even cause people to see and hear things that aren't there and to believe ...

  20. Girl Scout cookie shortage causes frustration with baker

    The baker has struggled to keep pace with cookie demand due to supply chain issues, labor shortages and weather-related power outages. The inventory woes have led to sagging sales for local Girl ...

  21. Short-sellers rake in $780 million betting against Silvergate as the

    NurPhoto / Contributor. Short-sellers have made $780 million betting Silvergate since the bank's shares peaked in November, per S3. The shares have tanked over 96% in 12 months, in the crypto rout ...

  22. V&M Breakout Update

    The larger negative signal from February 3rd continues to follow the breakdown pattern from August 2022. Long term V&M portfolios are beating the major indices with Neg Forensic +11.5%, Piotroski ...

  23. Commentary: Short-term rentals benefit both visitors and South

    The short-term rental industry has led to 50,231 jobs and more than $1.4 billion in labor income for South Carolinians, according to a recent economic impact study commissioned by S.C. Realtors ...