This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in critical thinking is hard; practice in critical-thinking skills themselves enhances skills; the transfer of skills must be practiced; some theoretical knowledge is required; diagramming arguments ("argument mapping") promotes skill; and students are prone to belief preservation. The article provides some guidelines for teaching practice in light of these lessons.
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Teaching critical thinking: some lessons from cognitive science.
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This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in critical thinking is hard; practice in critical-thinking skills themselves enhances skills; the transfer of skills must be practiced; some theoretical knowledge is required; diagramming arguments (“argument mapping”) promotes skill; and students are prone to belief preservation. The article provides some guidelines for teaching practice in light of these lessons.
- critical thinking
- cognitive science
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van Gelder, T. (2005). Teaching critical thinking: Some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching, 53, 41-46. doi:10.3200/CTCH.53.1.41-48
has been cited by the following article:
TITLE: A Cognitive Emotional Methodology for Critical Thinking
KEYWORDS: Critical Thinking; Decision Making; Social Work; Social Work Education
JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Applied Sociology , Vol.3 No.1 , March 18, 2013
ABSTRACT: This essay provides a theoretical foundation for a cognitive emotional methodology for critical thinking that is currently being utilized by the author in undergraduate and graduate social work advanced seminar classes. Through a review of the literature, the paper suggests that most approaches to teaching critical thinking do not integrate cognitive emotional criteria in the teaching method, and this is problematic for social work education. Citing recent literature about teaching empathy and values, and merging that work with clinical theory and practice, a theoretical foundation is established for a methodology that is in its formative stages. The methodology and its constructs are described. Although the methodology is presented though the vehicle of social work education, it is asserted that the methodology has broader utility.
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- Open Access Articles Barriers in Teaching Critical Thinking in Islamic Education Mohd Isa Hamzah, Nursafra Mohd Zhaffar, Khadijah Abdul Razak Creative Education Vol.9 No.14 , October 31, 2018 DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.914175
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PHIL102: Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic
Critical Thinking Skills
Read these four tutorials on critical thinking. As you read, compare the abilities that a person acquires after becoming a critical thinker with your own goals as a student, as well as with your future career and life goals.
Teaching Critical Thinking
In a survey conducted by the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute, 99.6% of university teachers agreed that critical thinking is an "very important" or "essential" goal for undergraduate education. (HERI (2009) The American College Teacher: National Norms for 2007–2008 . Higher Education Research Institute, University of California.)
But how should critical thinking be taught? There are lots of different issues to be investigated, such as:
- Should critical thinking be taught as a separate subject on its own, or should it be taught in combination with other specific subjects that the students are studying?
- Which are the topics that are most crucial? How useful are lessons in formal logic or Venn diagrams? How should we go about designing a curriculum?
Research from education psychology and cognitive science are very much relevant when designing an effective pedagogy for teaching critical thinking. Here is a research article on this topic commissioned by our website:
Tim van Gelder (2004) "Teaching Critical Thinking: Lessons from Cognitive Science"
A later version is published as van Gelder, T. J. (2005). Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons from Cognitive Science. College Teaching , 53, 41-6.
Abstract: This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in critical thinking is hard; practice in critical thinking skills themselves enhances skills; the transfer of skills must be practiced; some theoretical knowledge is required; diagramming arguments ("argument mapping") promotes skill; and students are prone to belief preservation. The article provides some guidelines for teaching practice in light of these lessons.
Colorado State University
College of natural sciences, the cognitive science on teaching critical thinking.
November 12, 2020
Good morning CNS Instructors,
I trust you are all staying healthy and sane. We are in the home stretch for the fall semester.
This week’s teaching tip focuses on the cognitive science on teaching critical thinking . This tip draws from an “Ask the Cognitive Scientist article by Daniel T. Willingham (American Educator fall 2020, attached) suggested to me by Ben Clegg (Psychology).
Most of us consider critical thinking as a skill/ability we would like our program majors to have at least improved, upon graduation. Daniel Willingham puts forward this definition of critical thinking:
“You are thinking critically if (1) your thinking is novel—that is, you aren’t simply drawing a conclusion from a memory of a previous situation; (2) your thinking is self-directed—that is, you are not merely executing instructions given by someone else; and (3) your thinking is effective—that is, you respect certain conventions that make thinking more likely to yield useful conclusions. These conventions include ‘consider both sides of an issue,’ ‘offer evidence for claims made,’ and ‘don’t let emotion interfere with reason’.” A more succinct definition he offers is the ability to “analyze, synthesize, and evaluate” information. His article focuses on effective thinking producing useful conclusions. He contends that research indicates that critical thinking ability applied to specific problems can be taught. However, teaching the ability to apply critical thinking more generally, to new problems and across fields appears more challenging. Research findings indicate that even experts do not perform critical thinking well outside their specialties. One solution is teaching recognition of the key stepsT in solving a problem. However, it is not clear that general, non-field specific critical thinking skills even exist.
To teach more field-specific teaching skills Willingham suggests these four steps:
· Identify what’s meant by critical thinking in your domain.
· Identify the domain content that students must know.
· Select the best sequence for students to learn the critical thinking skills.
· Decide which skills should be revisited across years in the curriculum.
Finally, Willingham suggests considering student age, the type of student and how critical thinking will be assessed. He also cautions that student have difficulty learning critical thinking and instructors need to maintain patience through the process. Sounds like we have our work cut out for us.
Joseph F. Brown, Director of the TILT Academic Integrity Program asked me to share student-focused resources found at this site: https://tilt.colostate.edu/Integrity/StudentResources and the attached handout.
Thanks to Ben Clegg for suggesting this article. I hope you enjoy it as much as I did.
Just one more week until fall break!
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Critical Thinking Center (CTC)
The critical thinking literature is vast and growing. Below is a list of some of the things that we're reading at the Critical Thinking Center.
- Baehr, J. (2013). "Educating for the Intellectual Virtues." Journal of Philosophy of Education 47 (2): 248-262.
- Bailin, S., et al. (1999). "Common Misconceptions of Critical Thinking." Journal of Curriculum Studies 31 (3): 269-283.
- Bailin, S., et al. (1999). "Conceptualizing Critical Thinking." Journal of Curriculum Studies 31 (3): 285-302.
- Battaly, H. (2006). "Teaching Intellectual Virtues." Teaching Philosophy 29 (3): 191-222.
- Cahill, A. and Bloch-Shulman (2012). "Argumentation Step by Step." Teaching Philosophy 35 (1): 41-62.
- Carrington, M., et al. (2011). "Effectiveness of a single intervention of computer‐aided argument mapping in a marketing and a financial accounting subject." Higher Education Research & Development 30 (3): 387-403.
- Corvino, J. (2015). "Fact Opinion Distinction." The Philosopher's Magazine Online .
- Cullen, S., et al. (2018). "Improving analytical reasoning and argument understanding: a quasi-experimental field study of argument visualization." npj Science of Learning 3 (1): 21.
- Davies, M. (2008). "Not Quite Right: Helping Students to Make Better Arguments." Teaching in Higher Education 13 (3): 327-340.
- Davies, M. (2009). "Computer Assisted Argument Mapping a Rationale Approach." Higher Education 58 : 799-820.
- Davies, M. (2011). "Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: what are the differences and do they matter?" Higher Education 62 (3): 279-301.
- Ericsson, K. A. (2008). "Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: a general overview." Academic Emergency Medicine 15 (11): 988-994.
- Facione, P. (2015). "Critical Thinking What It Is and Why It Counts." Retrieved from https://www.insightassessment.com/Resources/Importance-of-Critical-Thinking/Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts .
- Gelder, T. v. (2005). "Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons From Cognitive Science." College Teaching 53 (1): 41-48.
- Harrell, M. (2008). "No Computer Program Required." Teaching Philosophy 31 (4): 351-374.
- Harrell, M. (2012). "Assessing the Efficacy of Argument Diagramming." Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (2): 31-39.
- Hoffmann, M. (2005). "Logical Argument Mapping: A Method for Overcoming Cognitive Problems of Conflict Management." International Journal of Conflict Management 16 (4): 304-334.
- Hoffmann, M. (2011). "Climate Ethics: Structuring Deliberation by Means of Logical Argument Mapping." Journal of Speculative Philosophy 25 (1): 64-96.
- Hoffmann, M. (2011). Cognitive Effects of Argument Visualization Tools. Argumentation: Cognition and Community . F. Zenker : 1-12.
- Huitt, W. (1998). "Critical Thinking an Overview." Educational Psychology Interactive .
- Jones, W. (2012). "Higher Education Academic Communities and the Intellectual Virtues." Educational Theory 62 (6): 695-711.
- Larson, M., et al. (2004). "Disfluencies in Comprehending Argumentative Texts." Reading Psychology 25 (3): 205-224.
- Norris, S. (2014). Critical Thinking. Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy . D. C. Phillips : 197-200.
- Sweller, J. (1994). "Cognitive Load Theory Learning Difficulty and Instructional Design." Learning and Instruction 4 : 295-312.
- Twardy, C. (2004). "Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking." Teaching Philosophy 27 (2): 95-116.
- van Gelder, T. (2005). "Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons from Cognitive Science." College Teaching 53 (1): 41-46.
SOME LESSONS FROM COGNITIVE SCIENCE. Tim van Gelder. Abstract. This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking.
TEACHING CRITICAL THINKING: SOME LESSONS FROM COGNITIVE SCIENCE. Tim van Gelder. College Teaching; Winter 2005; 53, 1; ERIC®.
This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in
This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in
Request PDF | Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons From Cognitive Science | This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of
van Gelder, T. J. (2005). Teaching critical thinking: some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching, 53, 41-6. ... This article draws six
van Gelder, T. (2005). Teaching critical thinking Some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching, 53, 41-46.doi10.3200/CTCH.53.1.41-48.
A later version is published as van Gelder, T. J. (2005). Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons from Cognitive Science. College Teaching, 53, 41-6.
His article focuses on effective thinking producing useful conclusions. He contends that research indicates that critical thinking ability applied to specific
Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED272882.pdf. Van Gelder, T. (2005). Teaching critical thinking: Some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching
van Gelder, T. (2005). "Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons from Cognitive Science." College Teaching 53(1): 41-46.