Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 181 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Academia Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for academics and those enrolled in higher education. It only takes a minute to sign up.

Q&A for work

Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

Does the word limit for Physical Review Letters include references etc.?

I'm preparing a manuscript to submit to Physical Review Letters. On their website it says that the word limit is 3750 words.

Does this word limit count every word in the whole manuscript, including title abstract acknowledgements and references? Or does it only cover the body text? I couldn't find this information on their website.

user1271772's user avatar

On the page you linked to, it says

For a more detailed explanation of length limits, please consult the journals’ Length Limit Guide .

If you were to follow that link, you'd find that the length formula used by APS is somewhat complicated, as they assign an equivalent number of words to figures, tables, and equations. However, it also establishes that e.g. abstract, author listings, references, and acknowledgements do not count towards the length limit.

Anyon's user avatar

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for browse other questions tagged publications publishers ..

Hot Network Questions

physical review letters word limit

Your privacy

By clicking “Accept all cookies”, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy .

Physical Review Letters

Cover image


Underdetermined dyson-schwinger equations, march 8, 2023.

Approximate solutions for the one-point Green’s function of a PT -symmetric quartic field theory obtained from truncated Schwinger-Dyson equations.

Carl M. Bender, Christos Karapoulitidis, and S. P. Klevansky Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 101602 (2023)

Addition by Division

December 13, 2022.

PRL is modernizing its sections to better welcome and accommodate a number of areas, including astrophysics, quantum science and technology, and materials and applied physical science.

Key image


Spin, charge, and η -spin separation in one-dimensional photodoped mott insulators.

A derivation of the exact expression for the wave function of photodoped metastable states in one-dimensional Mott insulators shows that these systems host a number of correlations among the active degrees freedom, such as spin, charge and η-spin separation.

Yuta Murakami et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 106501 (2023)



Randall kamien named aps editor in chief, december 7, 2022.

The American Physical Society’s Board of Directors has appointed Randall Kamien as Editor in Chief effective January 1, 2023.



Density-functional models get excited.

A venerable strategy for approximating a system’s ground states has now been extended to accommodate its excited states.

Synopsis on: Tim Gould, Derk P. Kooi, Paola Gori-Giorgi, and Stefano Pittalis Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 106401 (2023)


Molecular-Orbital Electron Sources

The molecular orbitals of a single C 6 0 molecule on a tungsten tip can be used to shape the emission pattern of electrons.

Viewpoint on: Hirofumi Yanagisawa et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 106204 (2023)

Polymer soft matter

Subject Focus: Polymers and Soft Matter

Editors from Physical Review Letters , Physical Review Applied , and Physical Review Materials have gathered several recently published papers in soft matter and polymer research in an effort to illustrate the kind of papers these journals are looking for in this topic.

Or pin 275px

APS Announces Outstanding Referees for 2023

March 6, 2023.

APS has selected 146 Outstanding Referees for 2023 who have demonstrated exceptional work in the assessment of manuscripts published in the Physical Review journals. A full list of the Outstanding Referees is available online .


Reactor Neutrinos Detected by Water

March 1, 2023.

Researchers have captured the signal of neutrinos from a nuclear reactor using a water-filled neutrino detector, a first for such a device.

Synopsis on: A. Allega et al. (The SNO+ Collaboration) Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 091801 (2023)

Key image

Proofs of Network Quantum Nonlocality in Continuous Families of Distributions

A conjecture initially formulated by applying machine learning techniques to network nonlocality is rigorously proved.

Alejandro Pozas-Kerstjens, Nicolas Gisin, and Marc-Olivier Renou Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 090201 (2023)

Key image

Chiral Light Amplifier with Pumped Weyl Semimetals

While not yet experimentally realizable, a theory shows that a pumped Weyl semimetal could potentially be used as a “chiral light amplifier” with helicity selectivity whose performance could be tuned using electric, chiral magnetic, and anomalous Hall conductivities.

Yusuke Nishida Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 096903 (2023)


Water is Behind the Electrification of Sand

February 27, 2023.

The results of new experiments indicate that surface-adsorbed water molecules are responsible for contact electrification in granular matter, a finding that challenges established models of this phenomenon.

Viewpoint on: Galien Grosjean and Scott Waitukaitis Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 098202 (2023)

Key image

Rigorous Criteria for the Collapse of Nonlinear Cooperative Networks

An analytic approach for obtaining rigorous bounds on tipping points for general nonlinear cooperative networks makes it possible to calculate accurately the criteria for the collapse of such networks.

Rui-Jie Wu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 097401 (2023)

Key image

Nonaffine Deformation of Semiflexible Polymer and Fiber Networks

The nonaffine properties of semiflexible networks (common in biomaterials) are captured by an analytical model under various conditions in both 2D and 3D.

Sihan Chen, Tomer Markovich, and Fred C. MacKintosh Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 088101 (2023)

Key image

Energetics of Microwaves Probed by Double Quantum Dot Absorption

Detuning and stopping-potential measurements in a quantum dot photodiode demonstrate a microwave analog of the photoelectric effect.

Subhomoy Haldar et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 087003 (2023)


Freezing Particle Motion with a Matrix

February 22, 2023.

Researchers predict that the “scattering matrix” of a collection of particles could be used to slow the particles down, potentially allowing for the cooling of significantly more particles than is possible with current techniques.

Synopsis on: Jakob Hüpfl et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 083203 (2023)

Jakob Hüpfl et al . Phys. Rev. A 107 , 023112 (2023)


Physical review journal club: backaction cooling in magnetomechanics, february 6, 2023.

By exploiting a nonlinear cavity, a new approach enables efficient cooling of a wider range of optomechanical systems.

PRX Life Opens for Submissions March 20, 2023

February 3, 2023.

Mark your calendars: PRX Life , the first interdisciplinary journal focused exclusively on biological physics and quantitative life science research, will officially begin accepting submissions March 20, 2023 .

Introducing PRX Life

December 1, 2022.

APS is pleased to announce the launch of the newest Physical Review title, PRX Life . PRX Life will offer scientists from a broad range of disciplines—including physics, biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine—a high impact, fully open access journal dedicated to publishing outstanding research at all scales of biological organization.


Subject Focus: Astrophysics

To mark the 241st American Astronomical Society meeting, Physical Review Letters , Physical Review C , and Physical Review D highlighted several significant papers in astrophysics to illustrate the type of research these journals seek to publish.

A Welcoming Home for Applied Science

October 11, 2022.

With new journals, special content, and a broad outreach effort, the Physical Review journals aim to be a leader in publishing applied research.


PRL Welcomes Robert Garisto as Its New Managing Editor

January 12, 2022.

Robert Garisto (right) has been named the Managing Editor of Physical Review Letters , the world’s premier physics journal. As Managing Editor, Garisto will lead PRL’s editorial team and provide scientific direction for the journal in partnership with PRL’s Lead Editor, Hugues Chaté.

Current Issue

Vol. 130, Iss. 10 — 10 March 2023

Previous Issues

Email Alerts

Sign up to receive regular email alerts from Physical Review Letters

physical review letters word limit


More Announcements

Trending in PRL

Rigorous Criteria for the Collapse of Nonlinear Cooperative Networks Rui-Jie Wu et al . Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 097401 (2023)

Nonaffine Deformation of Semiflexible Polymer and Fiber Networks Sihan Chen, Tomer Markovich, and Fred C. MacKintosh Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 088101 (2023)

Two-Dimensional Semiconductors with High Intrinsic Carrier Mobility at Room Temperature Chenmu Zhang, Ruoyu Wang, Himani Mishra, and Yuanyue Liu Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 087001 (2023)

Photon Acceleration from Optical to XUV R. T. Sandberg and A. G. R. Thomas Phys. Rev. Lett. 130 , 085001 (2023)

2021 Journal Citation Reports

2021 Journal Citation Reports

APS-Max Planck Gesellschaft Pilot Transformative Agreement


Article Lookup

Paste a citation or doi, enter a citation.

Example of Physical Review Letters format

Recent searches

Institutions, conferences, journals gallery.

40,000+ journal templates to choose from for your next paper

Flexible pricing plans that caters to everyone’s needs

Lifetime Plan

Buy once and use forever.

Student Yearly Plan

Best for research scholars

Student Monthly Plan

Best for undergraduates

Plagiarism check

Detect plagiarism early. Powered by Turnitin.

Journal Submission

Get accepted in top journals.

For Publishers

Streamline publishing process with automated workflows

Client Stories

Read what our clients have yielded with our products and services

Convert from Word

Word file to JATS XML, PMC XML, DOAJ XML and more

Convert from PDF

PDF file to SciELO XML, CrossRef XML and more

Convert from JATS XML

JATS XML to Redalyc XML, DataCite XML and more

Adhere to standard of all global publishing bodies

Compliance for medical journals in PubMed database

Generate standardized XML for SciELO indexed journals

Example of Physical Review Letters format

Physical Review Letters — Template for authors

— or sign up using email —


Related Journals

physical review letters word limit

Advances in Physics: X

Taylor and Francis

Categories: Physics and Astronomy (all)

physical review letters word limit

American Chemical Society

Categories: Engineering (all), Materials Science (all) and Physics and Astronomy (all) +1 more

physical review letters word limit

Journal of Applied Physics

American Institute of Physics

physical review letters word limit

Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data

Categories: Physics and Astronomy (all), Chemistry (all) and Physical and Theoretical Chemistry +1 more

Journal Performance & Insights

graph view

3% from 2019

0% from 2019

Physical Review Letters

Guideline source: View

All company, product and service names used in this website are for identification purposes only. All product names, trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners.

Use of these names, trademarks and brands does not imply endorsement or affiliation. Disclaimer Notice

American Physical Society

American Physical Society

Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL) is the worlds premier physics letter journal and the American Physical Societys flagship publication. Since 1958 it has contributed to APSs mission to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics by publishing seminal research by Nobel Prizewinning and other distinguished researchers in all fields of physics. Read Less

Physical Review Letters (PRL) is the worlds premier physics letter journal and the American Physical Societys flagship publication. Since 1958 it has contributed to APSs mission to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics by publishing seminal research by Nobel Prizewinnin...... Read More

Top papers written in this journal

The ANZIAM Journal template (Cambridge University Press)

SciSpace is a very innovative solution to the formatting problem and existing providers, such as Mendeley or Word did not really evolve in recent years.

- Andreas Frutiger, Researcher, ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering

(Before submission check for plagiarism via Turnitin)

What to expect from SciSpace?

Speed and accuracy over ms word.

With SciSpace, you do not need a word template for Physical Review Letters.

It automatically formats your research paper to American Physical Society formatting guidelines and citation style.

You can download a submission ready research paper in pdf, LaTeX and docx formats.

Time comparison

Time taken to format a paper and Compliance with guidelines

Plagiarism Reports via Turnitin

SciSpace has partnered with Turnitin, the leading provider of Plagiarism Check software.

Using this service, researchers can compare submissions against more than 170 million scholarly articles, a database of 70+ billion current and archived web pages. How Turnitin Integration works?

Turnitin Stats

Freedom from formatting guidelines

One editor, 100K journal formats – world's largest collection of journal templates

With such a huge verified library, what you need is already there.


Easy support from all your favorite tools

Physical Review Letters format uses APSREV Citation citation style.

Automatically format and order your citations and bibliography in a click.

SciSpace allows imports from all reference managers like Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote, Google Scholar etc.

Frequently asked questions

1. can i write physical review letters in latex.

Absolutely not! Our tool has been designed to help you focus on writing. You can write your entire paper as per the Physical Review Letters guidelines and auto format it.

2. Do you follow the Physical Review Letters guidelines?

Yes, the template is compliant with the Physical Review Letters guidelines. Our experts at SciSpace ensure that. If there are any changes to the journal's guidelines, we'll change our algorithm accordingly.

3. Can I cite my article in multiple styles in Physical Review Letters?

Of course! We support all the top citation styles, such as APA style, MLA style, Vancouver style, Harvard style, and Chicago style. For example, when you write your paper and hit autoformat, our system will automatically update your article as per the Physical Review Letters citation style.

4. Can I use the Physical Review Letters templates for free?

Sign up for our free trial, and you'll be able to use all our features for seven days. You'll see how helpful they are and how inexpensive they are compared to other options, Especially for Physical Review Letters.

5. Can I use a manuscript in Physical Review Letters that I have written in MS Word?

Yes. You can choose the right template, copy-paste the contents from the word document, and click on auto-format. Once you're done, you'll have a publish-ready paper Physical Review Letters that you can download at the end.

6. How long does it usually take you to format my papers in Physical Review Letters?

It only takes a matter of seconds to edit your manuscript. Besides that, our intuitive editor saves you from writing and formatting it in Physical Review Letters.

7. Where can I find the template for the Physical Review Letters?

It is possible to find the Word template for any journal on Google. However, why use a template when you can write your entire manuscript on SciSpace , auto format it as per Physical Review Letters's guidelines and download the same in Word, PDF and LaTeX formats? Give us a try!.

8. Can I reformat my paper to fit the Physical Review Letters's guidelines?

Of course! You can do this using our intuitive editor. It's very easy. If you need help, our support team is always ready to assist you.

9. Physical Review Letters an online tool or is there a desktop version?

SciSpace's Physical Review Letters is currently available as an online tool. We're developing a desktop version, too. You can request (or upvote) any features that you think would be helpful for you and other researchers in the "feature request" section of your account once you've signed up with us.

10. I cannot find my template in your gallery. Can you create it for me like Physical Review Letters?

Sure. You can request any template and we'll have it setup within a few days. You can find the request box in Journal Gallery on the right side bar under the heading, "Couldn't find the format you were looking for like Physical Review Letters?”

11. What is the output that I would get after using Physical Review Letters?

After writing your paper autoformatting in Physical Review Letters, you can download it in multiple formats, viz., PDF, Docx, and LaTeX.

12. Is Physical Review Letters's impact factor high enough that I should try publishing my article there?

To be honest, the answer is no. The impact factor is one of the many elements that determine the quality of a journal. Few of these factors include review board, rejection rates, frequency of inclusion in indexes, and Eigenfactor. You need to assess all these factors before you make your final call.

13. What is Sherpa RoMEO Archiving Policy for Physical Review Letters?


14. What are the most common citation types In Physical Review Letters?

15. how do i submit my article to the physical review letters, 16. can i download physical review letters in endnote format.

Yes, SciSpace provides this functionality. After signing up, you would need to import your existing references from Word or Bib file to SciSpace. Then SciSpace would allow you to download your references in Physical Review Letters Endnote style according to Elsevier guidelines.

with Physical Review Letters format applied

Fast and reliable, built for complaince.

Instant formatting to 100% publisher guidelines on - SciSpace.

physical review letters word limit

No word template required

Typset automatically formats your research paper to Physical Review Letters formatting guidelines and citation style.

physical review letters word limit

Verifed journal formats

One editor, 100K journal formats. With the largest collection of verified journal formats, what you need is already there.

physical review letters word limit

Trusted by academicians

physical review letters word limit

I spent hours with MS word for reformatting. It was frustrating - plain and simple. With SciSpace, I can draft my manuscripts and once it is finished I can just submit. In case, I have to submit to another journal it is really just a button click instead of an afternoon of reformatting.

physical review letters word limit

ACS Publishing Center

Author guidelines.

physical review letters word limit

Last updated: February 07, 2023

Manuscript Submission Requirements Checklist

Scope of the journal, manuscript types, submit with fast format, document templates and format, acceptable software, file designations, and tex/latex, cover letter, manuscript text components, supporting information, research data policy, data requirements, language and editing services, preparing graphics, figure and illustration services, prior publication policy, editorial policies, providing potential reviewer names, manuscript transfer, proofs via acs direct correct, publication date and patent dates, asap publication, post-publication policies, sharing your published article.

When submitting your manuscript, please do the following:

Avoid uncommon acronyms and words like “First,” “Novel,” “Facile,” or “One-Pot.”

Table of Contents Graphic

Graphics and Tables

Authors including math, display or in-text, in their manuscripts are encouraged to consult the ACS Guidelines for Presenting Mathematical Information . This style sheet provides brief guidelines for the presentation of mathematical formulas complete with examples of ACS style and layout to indicate how math will appear when published.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry ( JPC ) Letters is devoted to reporting new and original experimental and theoretical basic research of interest to physical chemists, biophysical chemists, chemical physicists, physicists, material scientists, and engineers. Manuscripts that are essentially reporting data, applications of data, performance evaluations of devices, or reviews of the literature are, in general, not suitable for publication in JPC Letters . An important criterion for acceptance is that the paper reports a significant scientific advance and/or physical insight such that rapid publication is essential.

JPC Letters publishes work across all areas while maintaining the highest quality. The journal editors strive to publish high-impact work that meets a strict standard of urgency.

Subject Categories

Guidelines for Theory Papers

To be appropriate for publication in JPC Letters , theory papers must satisfy at least one of the following criteria:

Letters are short articles that report results whose immediate availability to the scientific community is deemed important. The preferred maximum length for each Letter is between 1500 and 4000 words, and 3–5 figures, schemes, and illustrations in total. A brief abstract of no more than 150 words should be included; instructions for preparing an appropriate abstract may be found below. Special effort will be made to expedite the reviewing and the publication of JPC Letters submissions. Thus, authors should ensure that manuscripts are in final, error-free form when submitted. Letters must contain a Table of Contents (TOC)/Abstract graphic as part of the manuscript.


Perspectives (by invitation only) are brief, peer-reviewed reports (~20 - 30 typed double spaced pages) highlighting a specific topic of interest to physical chemists and chemical physicists. Perspectives must be submitted using the link placed in the invited author’s ACS Paragon Plus dashboard. These reports are not intended to be a comprehensive look at the field but rather to place a particular research finding into broader context. Perspectives should include a brief abstract (150 words max), approximately 50 references, and a TOC graphic. Quotes will be selected to highlight key topics in the Perspective. Authors can submit possible quotes, but these must be unique to the current work being reported and not from previously cited work. The authors of Perspectives are encouraged to also submit a video (3–5 min) highlighting the theme of the Perspective. See Appendix 3 for Perspective Video instructions.

Viewpoints (by invitation only) are short editorial matter that comment on a previously published article in the journal or a specific research topic, provide educational insight into a research problem, or express views on a current or popular topic. Viewpoints are peer-reviewed. If Viewpoints are concerned with the work of other authors, the Editors will generally permit those authors to reply. It is essential that the discussion focus on scientific issues in both the Viewpoint and any Reply to the Viewpoint. Authors interested in submitting a Viewpoint should contact the Editor-in-Chief.

Guest Commentaries

Guest Commentaries (by invitation only) are editorial content that present discussions of immediate interest to the broad readership. The commentary is written by an expert to provide an overview a particular subject. Guest Commentaries are not peer-reviewed but are subject to approval by the Editor. Authors interested in submitting a Guest Commentary should contact the Editor-in-Chief.

Transparent Peer Review  

The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters  offers authors of new Letters manuscripts submitted after November 3, 2021 an opportunity to participate in transparent peer review. Transparent peer review allows the reader to see the exchange between authors and reviewers.  If the author chooses to participate in transparent peer review, the anonymous reviews and the author’s response to the reviewers’ comments will be published as supporting information, freely available alongside the article at the time of publication. Reviewers will remain anonymous unless they choose to sign their reviewer report and the editor agrees to disclose this information. More information about transparent peer review can be found  here  or at a  recently published editorial . 

While this document will provide basic information on how to prepare and submit the manuscript as well as other critical information about publishing, we also encourage authors to visit the ACS Publishing Center for additional information on everything that is needed to prepare (and review) manuscripts for ACS journals and partner journals, such as

Manuscript Preparation

All ACS journals and partner journals have simplified their formatting requirements in favor of a streamlined and standardized format for an initial manuscript submission. Read more about the requirements and the benefits these serves authors and reviewers here .

Manuscripts submitted for initial consideration must adhere to these standards:

The templates facilitate the peer review process by allowing authors to place artwork and tables close to the point where they are discussed within the text. Learn more about document templates here . 

General information on the preparation of manuscripts may also be found in the ACS Guide to Scholarly Communication .

See the list of Acceptable Software and appropriate File Designations to be sure your file types are compatible with ACS Paragon Plus. Information for manuscripts generated from TeX/LaTeX is also available.

A cover letter must accompany every manuscript submission. During the submission process, you may type it or paste it into the submission system, or you may attach it as a file.

All manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter that contains clear and precise information about the submission and highlights the significance of the work. Please use official letterhead of the author’s affiliation that lists the mailing address and e-mail address. The cover letter must include all of the following points:

When submitting manuscripts in ACS Paragon Plus, authors should follow these steps:

The various sections of the manuscript should be assembled in the order listed below without section headers , with the exception of a header for the Experimental Section and/or Computational Methods, which should be included at the end of the main text of the manuscript.

An Editorial with useful advice on constructing an effective scientific paper can be found at DOI 10.1021/jz4006916 .

Section Order

Experimental Methods


The title should be specific, informative and concise and should accurately reflect the scientific content. Avoid using common phrases such as “investigation,” “study,” “demonstration,” or “performance evaluation,” uncommon acronyms, and words such as “first,” “novel,” “facile,” and “one- pot” in the title and abstract. The title, author list, and institutional affiliations should be included on the first page. A well-crafted title will specify the advance reported in the paper.

Be consistent in authorship designation on the manuscript and on all correspondence. Authors’ names should be given as completely as possible: first names, middle initials, and surnames. Give the complete mailing addresses of the institutions where the work was conducted and identify the affiliation of each author. If the current address of an author is different, include it in a footnote on the title page. The corresponding author(s) to whom inquiries about the paper should be addressed must be marked with an asterisk; provide the complete mailing address and e-mail address of this correspondent(s). Note: More than one author may be designated as a co- corresponding author in the published paper; however, only one author may be designated as the corresponding author while the manuscript is under review and revision in ACS Paragon Plus.

Institution Identification

Many funders and institutions require that institutional affiliations are identified for all authors listed in the work submitted. ACS facilitates this requirement by collecting institution information during manuscript submission under Step 2: Authors and Affiliations in ACS Paragon Plus.

The abstract should be a clear, concise, one-paragraph summary (100–150 words) that appeals to the general readership of physical chemistry/chemical physics. The abstract should be informative rather than descriptive, giving scope, purpose, and significant results/conclusions. Reference citations should be avoided.

Abbreviations and acronyms should be defined upon first usage. Authors’ abstracts are used directly for  Chemical Abstracts.

Main Text (without section headers)

Limit the introductory section to one to two paragraphs (without headings). Discuss relationships of the study to previously published work, but do not reiterate or attempt to provide a complete literature survey. The purpose or reason for the research being reported and its significance, originality, or contribution to new knowledge in the field should be clearly and concisely stated. Highlight the physical chemistry aspects of the work by citing appropriate work that would appeal to the Journal’s general readership. Do not include or summarize current findings in this section.

The author should discuss the significance of observations, measurements, or computations and should also point out how they contribute to the scientific objectives indicated in the introductory portion of the paper.

Complicated chemical equations, schemes, and structures should be supplied as graphic images, ready for publication. Figures, schemes, and charts, along with their captions, should be placed in the text where they are first mentioned and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Mathematical expressions and chemical formulas with uncommon symbols and letters should be clearly identified. Capital, lowercase, and Greek letters should be easily discernible or identified if ambiguity might result. Complicated superscripts and subscripts should be avoided.


Concluding remarks, principle findings, and future scope of the work should be summarized in the last paragraph of the results and discussion.

General Information. Provide a brief description of the experimental methodology in the manuscript. Detailed procedures can be provided in the Supporting Information, as needed.

Hazards. Authors must emphasize any unexpected, new, and/or significant hazards or risks associated with the reported work. This information should be in the experimental details section of the article.

Acknowledgments of financial assistance for the conduct of research, citations of theses, or indications of presentation at a research meeting should be brief and placed in this section.

Additional data and peripheral discussion should be placed in the Supporting Information (SI) rather than in references. Supplementary references may be placed in SI; however, any reference that is used in the SI only should not be cited in the paper. Submitted papers should not depend on unpublished material, and excessive reference to material in press or reports not readily found in research libraries is discouraged. If pertinent references are in press or unpublished for any reason, authors should upload copies of the references as Supporting Information for Review Only to enable reviewers to evaluate the manuscript. Papers accepted for publication are cited as “in press”; the journal abbreviation should be provided, and the DOI should be given if the paper is published online.

References can be provided in any style, but they must be complete, including titles. Unnecessarily long lists of references, including excessive self-citation, are to be avoided; however, authors must provide references to all relevant publications in which portions of the present work have appeared. Citation of recent papers published in physical chemistry and chemical physics journals that highlight the significance of the work to the general readership is encouraged. URLs are not preferred references because website content can be modified and, consequently, the reference information may lack permanence. For additional recommendations, see DOI 10.1021/jz500430j .

Unpublished references should not be included in the final reference list. Place “(unpublished results)” in the manuscript text immediately after the information. (This is required because readers will not have access to unpublished references.)

Multimedia is a creative way of further disseminating your work, gaining international exposure, and communicating with the physical chemistry community at large.

Perspective Videos

This information is provided to the reviewers during the peer-review process (for Review Only) and is available to readers of the published work (for Publication). Supporting Information must be submitted at the same time as the manuscript. See the list of Acceptable Software by File Designation and confirm that your Supporting Information is viewable .

If the manuscript is accompanied by any supporting information files for publication, these files will be made available free of charge to readers. A brief, nonsentence description of the actual contents of each file, including the file type extension, is required. This description should be labeled Supporting Information and should appear before the Acknowledgement and Reference sections.  Examples of sufficient and insufficient descriptions are as follows:

Examples of sufficient descriptions: “Supporting Information: 1 H NMR spectra for all compounds (PDF)” or “Additional experimental details, materials, and methods, including photographs of experimental setup (DOC)”.

Examples of insufficient descriptions: “Supporting Information: Figures S1-S3” or “Additional figures as mentioned in the text”.

When including supporting information for review only, include copies of references that are unpublished or in-press. These files are available only to editors and reviewers.

All ACS journals strongly encourage authors to make the research data underlying their articles publicly available at the time of publication.

Research data is defined as materials and information used in the experiments that enable the validation of the conclusions drawn in the article, including primary data produced by the authors for the study being reported, secondary data reused or analyzed by the authors for the study, and any other materials necessary to reproduce or replicate the results.

The ACS Research Data Policy provides additional information on Data Availability Statements, Data Citation, and Data Repositories.

Reproducibility of Results

It is essential that papers provide enough information so that calculations and experiments can be reproduced by others. We encourage authors to use Supporting Information for this purpose, which is publicly available free of charge on the internet upon publication, regardless of whether or not the accompanying article is made open access.

Guidelines for Computational Results

Below are the general guidelines from Pure Appl. Chem. 1998, 70 , No. 10, 2047–2049 ( ) for manuscripts reporting the results of electronic structure calculations, force field parameters, and other potential energy surface information. Further details are listed in the guidelines authored by J. E. Boggs ( Pure Appl. Chem. 1998, 70 , No. 4, 1015–1018 ( ). Both sets of guidelines can be viewed online at . While these papers refer to electronic structure and molecular dynamics calculations, the concepts stated below apply to all calculations.

Guidelines for Experiments

Authors are expected to provide sufficient detail to enable a trained professional to reproduce routine measurements and synthetic procedures. Authors are required to provide crystallographic or surface structure data as Supporting Information in crystallographic information file (CIF) format. For quantitative optical measurements, the specifics and usable range of the photodetector should be reported.

Teams of ACS editors have identified best practices in certain fields to guide authors in the reporting of experimental results. Please refer to them, as needed:

A well-written paper helps share your results most clearly. ACS Publications’ English Editing Service is designed to help scientists communicate their research effectively. Our subject-matter expert editors will edit your manuscript for grammar, spelling, and other language errors so your ideas are presented at their best.

The quality of illustrations in ACS journals and partner journals depends on the quality of the original files provided by the authors. Figures are not modified or enhanced by journal production staff. All graphics must be prepared and submitted in digital format.

Graphics should be inserted into the main body whenever possible. Please see Appendix 2 for additional information.

Any graphic (figure chart, scheme, or equation) that has appeared in an earlier publication should include a credit line citing the original source. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to re-use this material.

The impact of your research is not limited to what you can express with words. Tables and figures such as graphs, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, and other visuals can play a significant role in effectively communicating your findings. Our Artwork Editing and Graphical Abstract services generate publication-ready figures and Table of Contents (TOC) graphics that conform to your chosen journal’s specifications. For figures, this includes changes to file type, resolution, color space, font, scale, line weights, and layout (to improve readability and professional appearance). For TOC graphics, our illustrators can work with a rough sketch or concept or help extract the key findings of your manuscript directly for use as a visual summary of your paper.

Preparing for Submission

Manuscripts, graphics, supporting information, and required forms, as well as manuscript revisions, must all be submitted in digital format through ACS Paragon Plus , which requires an ACS ID to log in. Registering for an ACS ID is fast, free, and does not require an ACS membership. Please refer to Appendix 1 for additional information on preparing your submission

JPC Letters authors are allowed to deposit an initial draft of their manuscript in a preprint service such as ChemRxiv , arXiv, bioRxiv, or the applicable repository for their discipline prior to submission. Please note any use of a preprint server in the Cover Letter and, as appropriate, state how the manuscript has been adjusted/updated between deposition and submission. The use of a preprint service will not bias reviewing/acceptance of the paper in JPC Letters . Upon publication, authors are advised to add a link from the preprint to the published paper via the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Redundant publication, such as the use of a repository for published versions of papers, is subject to the Journal Publication Agreement and generally requires copyright permission.

Review Process

There are basically three steps in the review process. For more information on the review process, please read “ Overcoming the Myths of the Review Process and Getting Your Paper Ready for Publication " ( ).

Step 1 – Administrative Review

The manuscript submission is checked for completeness, e.g., complete author information provided, all files are present, no missing graphics, correct format. (For additional information, refer to the Editorial “ Getting Your Submission Right and Avoiding Rejection ” at .)

Step 2 – Editorial Review

The editors may exercise their prerogative to reject a manuscript after editorial review if that paper is judged to be outside the scope of the journal, poorly written or formatted, fragmentary and marginally incremental, or lacking in significant advance or urgency.

All manuscripts are reviewed and handled by one of the editors. The editor and editorial assistant are then responsible for the assigned manuscripts, including acknowledging receipt, evaluating the content of the paper, screening authors’ previous submissions/publications, and ultimately selecting reviewers, monitoring the progress of the review process, evaluating the comments of reviewers and forwarding them to the authors for their response, communicating ultimate acceptance or rejection to the corresponding author, carrying out a check of accepted manuscripts for appropriate format and style, and forwarding manuscripts to the publications office.

Step 3 – Peer Review

Papers that clear both the administrative review and editorial review are sent for peer review. The editors request the scientific advice of reviewers who are active in the area of research covered by the manuscript. The reviewers act only in an advisory capacity, and the final decision concerning a manuscript is the responsibility of the editors. The reviewers are asked to comment not only on the scientific content but also on the manuscript’s suitability for JPC Letters and urgency of publication. The reviewers are asked to evaluate the following: (1) originality and new scientific advance of the work, (2) broad appeal to physical chemists/chemical physicists, (3) how well the conclusions are supported by the data, (4) clarity of the paper, and (5) how well the paper provides new physical insights. All reviews are anonymous to the authors, and the reviewing process is most effective if reviewers do not reveal their identities to the authors.

A manuscript sent to an author for revision should be returned to the editor without delay. Authors should contact the editor if a delay is anticipated. The editors reserve the right to inactivate a manuscript not returned within 2 weeks of the request. When a manuscript is inactivated, it will no longer be available on your ACS Paragon Plus home page. When this occurs, you may contact the editorial office to request an extension; otherwise, the revised manuscript must be resubmitted as a new submission. The cover letter should indicate the previous manuscript number as well as respond to the comments of the reviewers. The manuscript will be processed as a revision with a new manuscript number and date of submission.

Manuscripts undergoing major revisions may be sent back to the original reviewers, who are asked to comment on the revisions. If only minor revisions are involved, the editor may choose to examine the revised manuscript in light of the recommendations of the reviewers without seeking further opinions. The author should provide a cover letter with the revised manuscript to detail how the author responded to the reviewers’ comments. The date of receipt of the original manuscript will appear on the published paper.

ACS Paragon Plus Tips

Revisions/Resubmissions For revisions:

For transfers to JPC A/B/C :

Manuscripts that are submitted to the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters may be deemed unsuitable for the journal but scientifically sound such that they may merit consideration in JPC A/B/C . In these cases, the editor of JPC Letters may directly transfer the manuscript in ACS Paragon Plus with all author-submitted information and reviews (if the manuscript is transferred after review) to JPC A/B/C with the permission of the authors.

The editors of JPC A/B/C have the discretion of requesting a new round of peer review prior to making a decision. Note that transfer of the manuscript does not guarantee acceptance.

All formatting requirements for JPC A/B/C must be met, including the change from Letter to Article format and a revised cover letter, prior to any action by the editors of JPC A/B/C .

Please suggest at least five reviewers. Authors are encouraged to avoid suggesting reviewers from the authors’ institutions. Do not suggest reviewers who may have a real or perceived conflict of interest . Whenever possible, suggest academic email addresses rather than personal email addresses.

If your submission is declined for publication by this journal, the editors might deem your work to be better suited for another ACS Publications journal or partner journal and suggest that the authors consider transferring the submission. Manuscript Transfer simplifies and shortens the process of submitting to another ACS journal or partner journal, as all the coauthors, suggested reviewers, manuscript files, and responses to submission questions are copied by ACS Paragon Plus to the new draft submission. Authors are free to accept or decline the transfer offer.

Note that each journal is editorially independent. Transferring a manuscript is not a guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted, as the final publication decision will belong to the editor of the next journal.


Correction of the galley proofs is the responsibility of the Corresponding Author. The Corresponding Author of an accepted manuscript will receive e-mail notification and complete instructions when page proofs are available for review via ACS Direct Correct . Extensive or important changes on page proofs, including changes to the title or list of authors, are subject to review by the editor.

It is the responsibility of the Corresponding Author to ensure that all authors listed on the manuscript agree with the changes made on the proofs. Galley proofs should be returned within 48 hours in order to ensure timely publication of the manuscript.

Accepted manuscripts will be published on the ACS Publications Web site as soon as page proofs are corrected and all author concerns are resolved. The first date on which the document is published on the Web is considered the publication date.

Publication of manuscripts on the Web may occur weeks in advance of the cover date of the issue of publication. Authors should take this into account when planning their patent and intellectual property activities related to a document and should ensure that all patent information is available at the time of first publication, whether ASAP or issue publication.

All articles published ahead of print receive a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, which is used to cite the manuscript before and after the paper appears in an issue. Additionally, any supplemental information submitted along with the manuscript will automatically be assigned a DOI and hosted on Figshare to promote open data discoverability and use of your research outputs.

Manuscripts will be published on the “ASAP Articles” page on the web as soon as page proofs are corrected and all author concerns are resolved. ASAP publication usually occurs within a few working days of receipt of page proof corrections, which can be several weeks in advance of the cover date of the issue.

The American Chemical Society follows guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) when considering any ethical concerns regarding a published article, Retractions, and Expressions of Concern.

Additions and Corrections

Additions and Corrections may be requested by the author(s) or initiated by the Editor to address important issues or correct errors and omissions of consequence that arise after publication of an article. All Additions and Corrections are subject to approval by the Editor, and should bring new and directly relevant information and corrections that fix scientific facts. Minor corrections and additions will not be published. Readers who detect errors of consequence in the work of others should contact the corresponding author of that work.

Additions and Corrections must be submitted as new manuscripts via ACS Paragon Plus by the Corresponding Author for publication in the “Addition/Correction” section of the Journal. The corresponding author should obtain approval from all coauthors prior to submitting or provide evidence that such approval has been solicited. The manuscript should include the original article title and author list, citation including DOI, and details of the correction.


Articles may be retracted for scientific or ethical reasons and may be requested by the article author(s) or by the journal Editor(s), but are ultimately published at the discretion of the Editor. Articles that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data such that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon may be retracted in order to correct the scientific record. When an article is retracted, a notice of Retraction will be published containing information about the reason for the Retraction. The originally published article will remain online except in extraordinary circumstances (e.g. where deemed legally necessary, or if the availability of the published content poses public health risks).

Expressions of Concern

Expressions of Concern may be issued at the discretion of the Editor if:

Upon completion of any related investigation, and when a final determination is made about the outcome of the article, the Expression of Concern may be replaced with a Retraction notice or Correction.

At ACS Publications, we know it is important for you to be able to share your peer reviewed, published work with colleagues in the global community of scientists. As sharing on sites known as scholarly collaboration networks (SCNs) is becoming increasingly prevalent in today’s scholarly research ecosystem, we would like to remind you of the many ways in which you, a valued ACS author, can share your published work .

Publishing open access makes it easy to share your work with friends, colleagues, and family members. In addition, ACS Publications makes it easy to share your newly published research with ACS Articles on Request (see below). Don’t forget to promote your research and related data on social media, at conferences, and through scholarly communication networks. Increase the impact of your research using the following resources: Altmetrics , Figshare , ACS Certified Deposit

When your article is published in an ACS journal or partner journal, corresponding authors are provided with a link that offers up to 50 free digital prints of the final published work. This link is valid for the first 12 months following online publication, and can be shared via email or an author’s website. After one year, the access restrictions to your article will be lifted, and you can share the Articles on Request URL on social media and other channels. To access all your Articles on Request links, log in to your ACS Publishing Center account and visit the “My Published Manuscripts” page.

Article , journal , and commercial reprints are available to order.


We’ve developed ACS’ publishing and editorial policies in consultation with the research communities that we serve, including authors and librarians. Browse our policies below to learn more.

Ethical Guidelines

ACS editors have provided Ethical Guidelines for persons engaged in the publication of chemical research—specifically, for editors, authors, and reviewers. Each journal also has a specific policy on prior publication .

OFAC Compliance

As a U.S.-based non-profit organization, the American Chemical Society (ACS) is required to comply with U.S. sanctions laws and regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). While these laws and regulations permit U.S.-based publishers like ACS to engage in publishing-related activities with authors located in sanctioned regions in many cases, ACS may be prohibited under U.S. law from engaging in publishing-related activities in some cases, including, but not limited to, instances where an author or the institution with which an author is affiliated is located in a particular sanctioned region or has been designated by OFAC as a Specially Designated National (SDN) pursuant to certain U.S. sanctions programs. ACS reserves the right to refrain from engaging in any publishing-related activities that ACS determines in its sole discretion may be in violation of U.S. law.

Safety Considerations

Authors must emphasize any unexpected, new, and/or significant hazards or risks associated with the reported work. This information should be in the Experimental Section of a full article and included in the main text of a letter. Statement examples can be found in the Safety Statement Style Sheet  and additional information on communicating safety information from the  ACS Guide to Scholarly Communication is freely available here .

Conflict of Interest Disclosure

A statement describing any financial conflicts of interest or lack thereof is published in each ACS journal and partner journal article.

During the submission process, the Corresponding Author must provide a statement on behalf of all authors of the manuscript, describing all potential sources of bias, including affiliations, funding sources, and financial or management relationships, that may constitute conflicts of interest. If the manuscript is accepted, the statement will be published in the final article.

If the manuscript is accepted and no conflict of interest has been declared, the following statement will be published in the final article: “The authors declare no competing financial interest.”

In publishing only original research, ACS is committed to deterring plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. ACS Publications uses CrossCheck's iThenticate software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to published material. Note that your manuscript may be screened during the submission process.

Further information about plagiarism can be found in Part B of the Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research . See also the press release regarding ACS' participation in the CrossCheck initiative.

Authorship, Author List, and Coauthor Notification

Authors are required to obtain the consent of all their coauthors prior to submitting a manuscript. The submitting author accepts the responsibility of notifying all coauthors that the manuscript is being submitted.

During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation, and mailing address) for all of the coauthors. Because all of the author names are automatically imported into the electronic Journal Publishing Agreement , the names must be entered into ACS Paragon Plus. (Note that coauthors are not required to register in ACS Paragon Plus.) Author affiliation should reflect where the work was completed, even if the author has since left that institution. Authors may include a note with a current address if their institution has changed since the work was completed.

To expedite the processing of your manuscript, please format your author and affiliation information according the guidelines in this link: .

Criteria for authorship can be found in Part B of the Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research . Artificial intelligence (AI) tools do not qualify for authorship. The use of AI tools for text or image generation should be disclosed in the manuscript within the Acknowledgment section with a description of when and how the tools were used. For more substantial use cases or descriptions of AI tool use, authors should provide full details within the Methods or other appropriate section of the manuscript.

If any change in authorship is necessary after a manuscript has been submitted, confirmation is required that all of the authors (including those being added or removed) have been notified and have agreed to the change. To provide this confirmation, authors are asked to complete and sign an authorship change form and provide the completed form to the appropriate editorial office.

Patent Activities and Intellectual Property

Authors are responsible for ensuring that all patent activities and intellectual property issues are satisfactorily resolved prior to first publication (ASAP or in issue). Acceptance and publication will not be delayed for pending or unresolved issues of this nature.

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)

Authors submitting manuscript revisions are required to provide their own personal, validated ORCID iD before completing the submission, if an ORCID iD is not already associated with their ACS Paragon Plus user profiles. This ID may be provided during original manuscript submission or when submitting the manuscript revision. All authors are strongly encouraged to register for an ORCID iD, a unique researcher identifier. The ORCID iD will be displayed in the published article for any author on a manuscript who has a validated ORCID iD associated with ACS when the manuscript is accepted.

ORCID iDs should not be typed into the manuscript. ACS publishes only those ORCID iDs that have been properly verified and linked before the manuscript is accepted . After your ORCID iD is linked, it will be displayed automatically in all subsequently accepted manuscripts for any/all ACS journals. We do not publish ORCID iDs provided during proof review or via other communications after a manuscript is accepted for publication.

With an ORCID iD, you can create a profile of your research activities to distinguish yourself from other researchers with similar names, and make it easier for your colleagues to find your publications. If you do not yet have an ORCID iD, or you wish to associate your existing ORCID iD with your ACS Paragon Plus account, you may do so by clicking on “Edit Your Profile” from your ACS Paragon Plus account homepage and following the ORCID-related links. Learn more at .

Copyright and Permissions

To obtain forms and guidelines for copyright transfer, obtaining permissions from copyright owners, and to explore a Copyright Learning Module for chemists, click here .

Funder Reporting Requirement

Authors are required to report funding sources and grant/award numbers. Enter ALL sources of funding for ALL authors in BOTH the Funder Registry Tool in ACS Paragon Plus and in your manuscript to meet this requirement.

Open Access Compliance

ACS offers options by which authors can fulfill the requirements for open access and deposition into repositories for funded research. Visit our ACS Open Science site to see how to fulfill requirements for specific funders  and to find out if you are eligible to publish under a Read + Publish agreement between ACS and your institution. You can also find out more about Open Access Compliance and ACS Open Science initiatives .

Appendix 2: Preparing Graphics

Digital graphics pasted into manuscripts should have the following minimum resolutions:

Graphics must fit a one- or two-column format. Single-column graphics can be sized up to 240 points wide (3.33 in.) and double-column graphics must be sized between 300 and 504 points (4.167 in. and 7 in.). The maximum depth for all graphics is 660 points (9.167 in.) including the caption (allow 12 pts. For each line of caption text). Lettering should be no smaller than 4.5 points in the final published format. The text should be legible when the graphic is viewed full-size. Helvetica or Arial fonts work well for lettering. Lines should be no thinner than 0.5 point.

Color may be used to enhance the clarity of complex structures, figures, spectra, and schemes, etc., and color reproduction of graphics is provided at no additional cost to the author. Graphics intended to appear in black and white or grayscale should not be submitted in color.

Type of Graphics

Table of contents (toc)/abstract graphic.

Consult the Guidelines for Table of Contents/Abstract Graphics for specifications.

Our team of subject-matter experts and graphical designers can also help generate a compelling TOC graphic to convey your key findings. Learn more about our Graphical Abstract service .

A caption giving the figure number and a brief description must be included below each figure. The caption should be understandable without reference to the text. It is preferable to place any key to symbols used in the artwork itself, not in the caption. Ensure that any symbols and abbreviations used in the text agree with those in the artwork.

Charts (groups of structures that do not show reactions) may have a brief caption describing their contents.

Each table must have a brief (one phrase or sentence) title that describes the contents. The title should be understandable without reference to the text. Details should be put in footnotes, not in the title. Tables should be used when the data cannot be presented clearly in the narrative, when many numbers must be presented, or when more meaningful inter-relationships can be conveyed by the tabular format. Tables should supplement, not duplicate, information presented in the text and figures. Tables should be simple and concise.

Each scheme (sequences of reactions) may have a brief caption describing its contents.

Chemical Structures

Chemical structures should be produced with the use of a drawing program such as ChemDraw.

JPC Letters authors are encouraged to submit images to be considered for use on the journal’s front cover or Supplementary Covers at the time of the submission of their revised manuscript. If your article is accepted for publication, your suggestion may also be selected for use on one of the journal’s covers. If your art is selected for front cover, ACS will send you information about how to request one complimentary 18” by 24” printed poster featuring your work. Images chosen for the front cover will be published at no cost to the author.

Cover image submissions should be colorful and visually engaging, with minimal text. The cover image should not resemble a graphical abstract or data figure, but rather should be an artistic and scientifically accurate representation of the manuscript.

Image files should be submitted as TIF, JPG, PNG or EPS files with a resolution of at least 300 dpi for pixel-based images. Images should be 8.19 in × 9.74 in. (or 20.80 cm × 24.74 cm). Please note that the journal title will cover the top 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) of the image. Authors should submit the cover image, along with a short, clear legend (less than 50 words) explaining the image, as supplementary files to ACS Paragon Plus with their revised manuscript.

If you wish to be considered only for the front cover, and not a paid supplementary cover, please respond NO accordingly to the Journal Covers question in ACS Paragon Plus. For more information on the Supplementary Covers program, please see this webpage . All art submitted for consideration for a supplementary cover will also be considered for a front cover.

Appendix 3: Guidelines for JPC Letters Perspective Video Production

Web Enhanced Objects (WEO)

The Web editions of ACS journals allow readers to view multimedia attachments such as animations and movies that complement understanding of the research being reported.

WEOs should be uploaded in ACS Paragon Plus with ‘Web Enhanced Object’ selected as the file designation. Consult the list of compatible WEO formats .

Thanks for your interest in contributing a video on your JPC Letters Perspective. We recommend that the final, edited video be about 3– minutes in length. Some areas to cover in your discussion could include:

For examples of how to create your video, please take a look at the JPC Letters Perspective videos on the website. We would like to keep the discussion at a level that can be understood by undergraduate chemistry students.

The interviews should be shot using high definition camera equipment and lavalier clip-on mics. It doesn’t have to be professional-level equipment; an inexpensive consumer-level HD camera is fine. For microphones, these lavalier mic models could work:

Here are some other suggestions:

Important: If you shoot the interview in a lab, please wear eye protection! A lab coat is also recommended.

Also important: We prefer that you do not provide files in a Microsoft video format. The ACS video staff can work with virtually any other format.

If your video does not include captions identifying the speakers, please provide that information to ACS so that we can add those title graphics to your video.

physical review letters word limit

1155 Sixteenth Street N.W. Washington, DC 20036


Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

User Resources


Physical Review Letters

Precision Test of the Limits to Universality in Few-Body Physics

Roman chapurin, xin xie, michael j. van de graaff, jared s. popowski, josé p. d’incao, paul s. julienne, jun ye, and eric a. cornell, phys. rev. lett. 123 , 233402 – published 2 december 2019, see synopsis: three-body interactions, not so universal after all.

We perform precise studies of two- and three-body interactions near an intermediate-strength Feshbach resonance in K 39 at 33.5820(14) G. Precise measurement of dimer binding energies, spanning three orders of magnitude, enables the construction of a complete two-body coupled-channel model for determination of the scattering lengths with an unprecedented low uncertainty. Utilizing an accurate scattering length map, we measure the precise location of the Efimov ground state to test van der Waals universality. Precise control of the sample’s temperature and density ensures that systematic effects on the Efimov trimer state are well understood. We measure the ground Efimov resonance location to be at − 14.05 ( 17 ) times the van der Waals length r vdW , significantly deviating from the value of − 9.7 r vdW predicted by van der Waals universality. We find that a refined multichannel three-body model, built on our measurement of two-body physics, can account for this difference and even successfully predict the Efimov inelasticity parameter η .



© 2019 American Physical Society

Physics Subject Headings (PhySH)

Key Image

Three-Body Interactions, Not So Universal After All

Published 2 december 2019.

Precision measurements with ultracold gases provide evidence that three-body bound states depend on atom-specific two-body interactions.

See more in Physics

Authors & Affiliations

Article Text (Subscription Required)

Supplemental material (subscription required), references (subscription required).

Vol. 123, Iss. 23 — 6 December 2019

Access Options

Article Available via CHORUS

physical review letters word limit

Authorization Required

Other options.

Download & Share

Survey of experimental a − values in homonuclear systems, inspired by [ 15 ]. Previous results (blue circles) [ 3, 17, 37, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 ] show a tentative dependence of the a − value on the Feshbach resonance strength parameter s res . Our measurement (red star; red band in the inset) is the strongest evidence of departure from the − 9.7 ± 15 % r vdW value (dashed line and gray area) predicted by van der Waals universality [ 4, 5, 7, 9 ]. The inset shows calculations for a − based on a single van der Waals potential [ 7 ] with N = 1 − 7 s -wave two-body bound states (green squares) and results from our multichannel model [ 19 ] with N = 2 − 5 (black triangles).

Precise measurement of Feshbach dimer binding energies E b as a function of magnetic field B . Small experimental uncertainties on E b , spanning from 56 Hz at E b / h = 2.103     kHz to 1.0 kHz at E b / h = 1167.2     kHz , are not resolvable in the figure. A coupled-channel (cc) model is required to describe our data [ 19 ]. The solid curve shows the resulting fit, and the inset shows remarkably small fractional residuals. Contrary to applicability near broad Feshbach resonances [ 65 ], universal expressions (dashed and dotted curves) are insufficient for describing E b near our intermediate strength resonance.

Temperature dependence of the three-body loss coefficient L 3 , scaling as a 4 scaling (dashed) [ 73, 74, 75 ], enhanced near an Efimov ground state located at a − . For each temperature, we fit our data using a zero-temperature zero-range model [Eq. ( 1 )], limiting fits to data points for which | a | < λ / 10 (short vertical lines), to extract the L 3 / a 4 peak location and a finite-temperature zero-range model [Eq. ( 2 ), solid] to extract the true a − value. The inset shows the extracted peak locations (circles) and a − values (squares), where both coincide at the lowest temperature. The observed a − value significantly deviates from the a − = − 630 a 0 value (inset dashed line) predicted by van der Waals universality [ 7 ].

Suppression of the Efimov resonance in a high-density gas. Measurements of high- and intermediate-density samples performed with the same experimental conditions, contrasting only in the initial atom number. As a result, differential comparison of L 3 values between those two measurements is of greatest interest. Small L 3 deviations at low | a | between the lowest-density data and other data are attributed to differing trap conditions that result in evaporation. However, for our highest-density data, we observed a strong suppression of L 3 near a = a − .

Sign up to receive regular email alerts from Physical Review Letters

Article Lookup

Paste a citation or doi, enter a citation.

Scitation Home

Publisher Logo

For your interest in Applied Physics Letters

To sign up for alerts, please log in first. If you need an account, please  register here

Preparing Your Manuscript

Applied Physics Letters (APL) is an international, peer-reviewed letters journal publishing concise papers in all areas of applied physics that communicate original research discoveries that justify rapid dissemination.

Cover Letter

Authors of APL are encouraged to provide a cover letter as part of their submission. It can help convey the importance of the research to the Editors, explain why you consider the paper appropriate for the broad readership of Applied Physics Letters, and specifically how it aligns with the criteria for publication . The cover letter should make a clear statement on the manuscript’s significance and list related work by the authors. The cover letter will not be shared with reviewers and is intended to aid in the editorial pre-screening of manuscripts.

Manuscript Length

At the time of initial submission, your paper must be 3000 words or less, including figure and table captions. This word count excludes the title, author list, abstract, acknowledgements, data availability statement, references, and non-text items including figures, tables, and equations. Normally, papers longer than 3000 words will be rejected, and the authors will be required to shorten the paper and submit it again as a new manuscript. Please also note that section headings are not permitted for letters.

Longer papers may be considered only in exceptional cases if the quality warrants special consideration and the authors justify the additional length in their cover letter.

Authors are encouraged to include up to five figures in the paper to illustrate their results. Images may be grouped together as separate panels in one figure if they are logically connected and clarity is not compromised.

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society. According to various measurement standards, which includes the Journal Citation Reports impact factor, Physical Review Letters is considered to be a prestigious journal in the field of physics. PRL is published as a print journal, and is in electronic format, online and CD-ROM. Its focus is rapid dissemination of significant, or notable, results of fundamental research on all topics related to all fields of physics. This is accomplished by rapid publication of short reports, called "Letters". Papers are published and available electronically one article at a time. When published in such a manner, the paper is available to be cited by other work. Three editors are listed for this journal: Jack Sandweiss, George Basbas, and Reinhardt B. Schuhmann. Physical Review Letters is an internationally read physics journal, describing a diverse readership. Advances in physics, as well as cross disciplinary developments, are disseminated weekly, via this publication. Topics covered by this journal are also the explicit titles for each

Some content from Wikipedia , licensed under CC BY-SA

Physical Review Letters

physical review letters word limit

Topological charges of periodically kicked molecules

The peculiar topological properties of some forms of matter have been researched for decades. Now, researchers at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) have discovered topological properties of simple diatomic ...

Condensed Matter

physical review letters word limit

New bubble popping theory could help track ocean pollution and viruses

Bubbles are fun for everyone. But, it turns out, they can also be little menaces.

General Physics

3 hours ago

physical review letters word limit

Neutron-rich nuclei reveal how heavy elements form

Models for how heavy elements are produced within stars have become more accurate thanks to measurements by RIKEN nuclear physicists of the probabilities that 20 neutron-rich nuclei will shed neutrons.

5 hours ago

physical review letters word limit

Viable superconducting material created at low temperature and low pressure

In a historic achievement, University of Rochester researchers have created a superconducting material at both a temperature and pressure low enough for practical applications.

Mar 8, 2023

physical review letters word limit

New method for predicting the behavior of quantum devices provides crucial tool for real-world applications

Researchers have found a way to predict the behavior of many-body quantum systems coupled to their environment. The work represents a way to protect quantum information in quantum devices, which is crucial for real-world ...

Quantum Physics

physical review letters word limit

Researchers achieve nonreciprocal frequency conversion with optical and mechanical modes

Recently, a research team led by Prof. Guo Guangcan from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) demonstrated nonreciprocal routing between any two modes with different frequencies through radiation pressure ...

Optics & Photonics

Mar 6, 2023

physical review letters word limit

The final results of the Majorana collaboration's search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

For more than half a decade, the Majorana Collaboration, a large consortium of researchers from different universities worldwide, have been trying to observe neutrinoless double-beta decay, one of the rarest forms of radioactive ...

Mar 2, 2023

physical review letters word limit

Theoretical study: Cooling particles with laser light fields

Using lasers to slow down atoms is a technique that has been used for a long time already: If one wants to achieve low-temperature world records in the range of absolute temperature zero, one resorts to laser cooling, in ...

Feb 28, 2023

physical review letters word limit

The experimental realization of quantum overlapping tomography

Quantum tomography is a process that involves the reconstruction and characterization of a quantum state using a series of collected measurements. Over the past few years, many physicists have been trying to use this process ...

physical review letters word limit

Recognizing a clear sign that quark-gluon plasma production 'turns off' at low energy

Physicists report new evidence that production of an exotic state of matter in collisions of gold nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—an atom-smasher at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven ...

Feb 27, 2023

Your Privacy

This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, collect data for ads personalisation and provide content from third parties. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy and Terms of Use .

E-mail newsletter


  1. Physical Review Letters IV

    physical review letters word limit

  2. Physical Review Letters Word Limit

    physical review letters word limit

  3. Physical Review Letters I

    physical review letters word limit

  4. Physical Review Letters III

    physical review letters word limit


    physical review letters word limit

  6. Physical Review Letters

    physical review letters word limit


  1. MiX PRL

  2. Tutorial for typing the letters'' on a physical keyboard! Comment what should I do next?#shorts

  3. Word Correction

  4. POV: everyone has a word limit

  5. 46-Word finding

  6. 𝐀𝐥𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐛𝐞𝐭 𝐩𝐮𝐳𝐳𝐥𝐞


  1. Physical Review Letters

    The Physical Review journals require authors to abide by the length guidelines. An automatic count of the length of each manuscript is made upon submission. If this count indicates that the manuscript's length exceeds the journal's limit, staff will more carefully calculate the length.

  2. Physical Review Letters

    The length limit for a Letter is 3750 words and for a Comment is 750 words. For information on how to estimate length, see the Length Guide. Letters are brief, complete, and accessible accounts of important new results. Corrections: Authors may request to correct self-contained errors in papers published within the past year.

  3. publications

    On their website it says that the word limit is 3750 words. Does this word limit count every word in the whole manuscript, including title abstract acknowledgements and references? Or does it only cover the body text? I couldn't find this information on their website. publications publishers Share Improve this question Follow

  4. PDF Physical Review Style and Notation Guide

    ical Review B, and Letters types (1){(3) are incorporated into one consecutive list of references to be placed at the end of the paper. For the other journals, type (1) foot-notes are placed instead at the bottom of the page on which they appear. As an option (Physical Review A, C, and D only), footnotes [types (1) and (3)] may appear

  5. Physical Review Letters

    January 12, 2022. Robert Garisto (right) has been named the Managing Editor of Physical Review Letters, the world's premier physics journal. As Managing Editor, Garisto will lead PRL's editorial team and provide scientific direction for the journal in partnership with PRL's Lead Editor, Hugues Chaté. Read More.

  6. Physical Review Letters Template

    Physical Review Letters Physical Review Letters (PRL) is the worlds premier physics letter journal and the American Physical Societys flagship publication. Since 1958 it has contributed to APSs mission to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics by publishing seminal research by Nobel Prizewinnin...... Read More

  7. Information for Authors

    The template facilitates the peer review process by allowing authors to place artwork and tables close to the point where they are discussed within the text. Please use U.S. Letter (8 1/2" by 11") paper size setting in the word processing program as the original document page size for preparation of all manuscripts.

  8. Author Guidelines

    Limit your abstract to 150 words or fewer. ... The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters offers authors of new Letters manuscripts submitted after November 3, 2021 an opportunity to participate in transparent peer review. Transparent peer review allows the reader to see the exchange between authors and reviewers. ... and provide a short ...

  9. Applied Physics Letters

    Like the Comment, the Response must conform to the requirements listed above, including the 1000-word limit. The title of the response should read: "Response to Comment on original title [APL volume, page (year)]." The editors also evaluate the Response to determine whether it meets publication standards.

  10. Announcement: Physical Review Letters to Process MS Word Manuscripts

    Physical Review Letters will now process manuscripts prepared in Microsoft Word and submitted electronically. Manuscripts submitted in this format will be eligible for the page charge discount given to REVTeX manuscripts. Full details regarding procedures for preparation and submittal of Microsoft Word manuscripts that would qualify for the ...

  11. Diffusive Limit of Non-Markovian Quantum Jumps

    In other words, the diffusive limit can be taken in such a way that the LME associated with NMQJ transforms to a KME 2 associated with NMQSD. However, when the very same limit is taken in H, it results in a completely new unraveling, ... Physical Review Letters ...

  12. Physical Review Letters

    Precision Test of the Limits to Universality in Few-Body Physics Roman Chapurin, Xin Xie, Michael J. Van de Graaff, Jared S. Popowski, José P. D'Incao, Paul S. Julienne, Jun Ye, and Eric A. Cornell Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 233402 - Published 2 December 2019 ... Physical Review Letters ...

  13. Applied Physics Letters

    At the time of initial submission, your paper must be 3000 words or less, including figure and table captions. This word count excludes the title, author list, abstract, acknowledgements, data availability statement, references, and non-text items including figures, tables, and equations.


    Physical Review Letters is an internationally read physics journal, describing a diverse readership. Advances in physics, as well as cross disciplinary developments, are disseminated weekly, via...