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Finding and summarizing research articles - apa format, introduction.

Writing a summary or abstract teaches you how to condense information and how to read an article more effectively and with better understanding. Research articles usually contain these parts: Title/Author Information, Abstract, Introduction, Methodology, Result or Findings, Discussion or Conclusion, and References. To gain a better understanding of an article, try reading the abstract and the discussion or conclusion first and then read the entire article.

Finding an Article

PsycINFO Research Database The American Psychological Association’s (APA) renowned resource for abstracts of scholarly journal articles, book chapters, books, and dissertations, the largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health.

PsycINFO Tutorial

Journal Article Request If you can't find the free full text version of a research article, please complete and submit this form. An LRC staff member will then place an interlibrary loan request on your behalf.

Summarizing an Article

The following websites offer advice and instruction on summarizing articles:

Andrews University: Guidelines for Writing an Article Summary

UConn: How to Summarize a Research Article

Resources for APA Style

APA (7th ed.) Formatting and Style Guide Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

APA Style Website American Psychological Association

Books in the LRC

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.): BF76.7 .P83

Sample APA Citations

In-text citation.

If the author’s name is included within the text, follow the name with (year)

            Example: Jones (2009) found that diabetes symptoms improve with exercise.

If the author’s name is not included within the text, follow the sentence with (Last Name, year).

            Example: Increased exercise resulted in diminished diabetes symptoms (Jones, 2009).

Reference Citation

Author’s last name, A. A., & Author’s last name, B.B. (year).Title of article. Title of Journal , volume (issue), page number – page number.

Iscoe, K. E., & Riddell, M. C. (2011). Continuous moderate-intensity exercise with or without intermittent high-intensity work: Effects on acute and late glycaemia in athletes with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine , 28 (7), 824-832.

How to Summarize a Journal Article

Last Updated: October 6, 2022 References Approved

Reading Article

Planning draft, writing summary, sample summaries.

This article was co-authored by Richard Perkins . Richard Perkins is a Writing Coach, Academic English Coordinator, and the Founder of PLC Learning Center. With over 24 years of education experience, he gives teachers tools to teach writing to students and works with elementary to university level students to become proficient, confident writers. Richard is a fellow at the National Writing Project. As a teacher leader and consultant at California State University Long Beach's Global Education Project, Mr. Perkins creates and presents teacher workshops that integrate the U.N.'s 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the K-12 curriculum. He holds a BA in Communications and TV from The University of Southern California and an MEd from California State University Dominguez Hills. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 24 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,374,372 times.

Summarizing a journal article is the process of presenting a focused overview of a completed research study that is published in a peer-reviewed, scholarly source. A journal article summary provides potential readers with a short descriptive commentary, giving them some insight into the article's focus. Writing and summarizing a journal article is a common task for college students and research assistants alike. With a little practice, you can learn to read the article effectively with an eye for summary, plan a successful summary, and write it to completion.

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journal article summary sample

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To summarize a journal article, start by reading the author's abstract, which tells you the main argument of the article. Next, read the article carefully, highlighting portions, identifying key vocabulary, and taking notes as you go. In your summary, define the research question, indicate the methodology used, and focus mostly on the results of the research. Use your notes to help you stay focused on the main argument and always keep your tone objective—avoid using personal pronouns and drawing your own conclusions. For tips on how to read through the journal article thoroughly, such as starting with the conclusion, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write Article Summaries, Reviews & Critiques

Writing an article summary.

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When writing a summary, the goal is to compose a concise and objective overview of the original article. The summary should focus only on the article's main ideas and important details that support those ideas.

Guidelines for summarizing an article:

Your summary should include:

 Adapted from "Guidelines for Using In-Text Citations in a Summary (or Research Paper)" by Christine Bauer-Ramazani, 2020

Additional Resources

All links open in a new window.

How to Write a Summary - Guide & Examples  (from

Writing a Summary  (from The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center)

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Journal Article Reviews Samples For Students

256 samples of this type

Regardless of how high you rate your writing abilities, it's always a worthy idea to check out an expertly written Article Review example, especially when you're handling a sophisticated Journal topic. This is exactly the case when catalog of sample Article Reviews on Journal will come in handy. Whether you need to brainstorm an original and meaningful Journal Article Review topic or inspect the paper's structure or formatting peculiarities, our samples will provide you with the required data.

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Article Review On Critical Analysis

Part 5: final draft.

This paper has several sections. First, it gives an analysis of a psychological report which was published in popular media. The second part documents the original research cited in the psychological report in section one. The third step gives a comparison between the first and second report.

Analysis of a Psychological Report

Sushel c, khanzada tw, samad a. retained surgical foreign bodies: can these be prevented article review examples, sample article review on health-related journal, 1- what is the complete journal name what is the medline abbreviation for your journal.

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The Nursing Shortage Effect On Patient Outcomes Article Review Samples

Article review on social studies.

Social studies are the incorporated study of humanities and sciences enhanced to endorse effectual community development. This paper therefore identifies and discusses three journal articles from different sources discussing about social studies . An annotation of the three journal articles dealing with social studies is presented below.

Lawlor, D. & Mariscal, Q. (2006). ‘Longman Social Studies.’ Journal of Social Studies Research, 10(3), 34-41.

Military Veterans And Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Article Review Example

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Thesis This is a critical review on research paper Case Studies on Successful M&A Practices in Acer & Lenovo: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective. The first section of this paper will discuss the purpose, rationale and related literature of this research paper. The second section will discuss the research methodology and design used in this paper. The final section will discuss the main findings and the implication related to this study.


Good nanotechnology in explosives article review example.

The Current State of Research on New Methods and Technologies for the Safety and Reliability of Assessment of Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics1

Weed Seed Mortality Article Review Sample

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Kornmann O, Dahl R, Centanni S, Dogra A, Owen R, Lassen C, Kramer B. Once-daily indacaterol versus twice-daily salmeterol for COPD: a placebo-controlled comparison. European Respiratory Journal 2011; 37(2):273-279.

Why are you looking at this journal?

Expertly written article review on tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer to follow, example of article review on natural resource economics journal article summary/review.

Article APA Citation: Sachs, J. D., & Warner, A. M. (1999). The big push, natural resource booms and growth. Journal of Development Economics, 59, 43-76. Retrieved February 13, 2016, from (01)00125-8

Research Problem Addressed

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Pieterse, H. J., Caniels, C. J. M. and Homan, T., 2012. Professional Discourses and Resistance to Change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(6): 798-818. DOI 10.1108/09534811211280573

Overview of the study

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Article Review Rood, A Scott (2010)

Good Example Of Article Review On Abstracts On Aspiration Pneumonia

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The purpose of this study is to compare two nursing articles in terms of their research purpose, research methodology, and research designs. The articles which have been chosen for this study are based the topic of Maggot Debridement Therapy.

Following are the articles which have been chosen for this analysis:

Example of article review on log assignment, log assignment #1: doj/sec drop bribery probes of 3m, reaction paper on hrm article review, article one:.

Authors: Dr. Muhammad Tariq Khan, Dr. Naseer Ahmed Khan, and Khalid Mahommod Periodical/Journal and date: Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, vol. 8, no. 3, September 2012

Page Numbers: 50-60

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International Police Training Journal. March 2013. Pp3-7 I selected this article because the development of simulation technology as an instructional tool has advanced significantly in police training across the world.

Article summary

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- Where did you find the research article? Did experts in the field review it before it was published? The research article was published in the Journal of Education for Business in 2011 . The paper was classified as peer-reviewed, therefore, validating that it was reviewed by experts in the filed before it was published. - Does the article have a stated research question or problem? That is, can you determine the focus of this author’s work? If so, what is the stated research question or problem?

Sample Article Review On Exercise Hyperpnea And Locomotion: Parallel Activation From The Hypothalamus

(City, State)

Question being investigated

This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that there is no close-paralleling of the raised rate of metabolism arising from contraction of muscles by hyperpnea, and thus arterial 02, pH, and C02 do not remain comparatively constant all through most of the moderate exercise range (Carli, et al., 1967). The alternative hypothesis was that a feed-forward mechanism is responsible for hyperpnea.

Importance of the question/publication

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Journal Article Summary Example

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Summarizing a journal is not hard when you know the rules. Summarizing is a common task that is given to students and you need to effectively know about it so that you can able to convince your readers and you can provide the needed information.

Writing article summary requires you to understand the basic understanding of writing formats as well as elements so that you know what information you need to include and what you should not. The essential thing you need to remember is that you need to cite the sources properly.

How to Summarize a Journal Article

To have an easy task, you can check out summarize a journal article sample online. Such  article summary examples  or article rewriting service help you a lot because you have a basis and a guide. To avoid plagiarism and get a flawless paper you might want to use online paraphrasing.

Sample Article Summary: A Guide for You

Summary of National Security Justifies Censorship   By Roger Thomas   Introduction   The National Security Justifies Censorship by James Zumwalt and Elmo Zumwalt appears in censorship. In the article, it asserts that details that are vital and secret to security of nation should not be released to press. Arguments of Junior and Zumwalt Senior are summarized below.   Summary   Even though numerous journalists contend that first amendment guarantees printing freedom unrestricted, the authors believe that the press gained more power than framers of constitution. The authors said that power of media gone far past. Also, they continue to affirm that significant risk exists when confidential details are released to press; the danger remained unresolved by the courts. The authors provide example in proving this point. With the provided examples they cited, they offer two solution: First, make publication of classified details a punishable offense and second, incorporate code of ethics into media guidelines safeguarding national security. It ends the paper by discussing how ethics are responsibility of a good journalism.   Conclusion   James Zumwalt and Elmo Zumwalt assert that media re overpowered and national security is under-protected. The authors believe that government and media must take steps in assuring that disaster will not occur.

When it comes to sample of a summary of an article, it is important that you have three sections: the introduction, body, and conclusion. It is essential that you have these sections for your summary to be good and appealing.

Summary of an Article Sample Do’s and Don’ts

Looking for a proper journal article summary example or you need an inspiration on how rewrite my paper ? Then feel free to review it now!  Plagiarism is another problem you don’t want to face with. To get an original article you should have perfect rewording skills or simply use our  paraphrasing examples to understand the process.

The tips presented above will help you a lot and will give you knowledge of what things you need to do. Make sure to remember and to know how to apply it correctly to avoid errors.

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Journal Article References

This page contains reference examples for journal articles, including the following:

1. Journal article

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture , 8 (3), 207–217.

2. Journal article with an article number

Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House.” PLoS ONE , 13 (3), Article e0193972.

3. Journal article with missing information

Missing volume number.

Stegmeir, M. (2016). Climate change: New discipline practices promote college access. The Journal of College Admission , (231), 44–47.

Missing issue number

Sanchiz, M., Chevalier, A., & Amadieu, F. (2017). How do older and young adults start searching for information? Impact of age, domain knowledge and problem complexity on the different steps of information searching. Computers in Human Behavior , 72 , 67–78.

Missing page or article number

Butler, J. (2017). Where access meets multimodality: The case of ASL music videos. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy , 21 (1).

4. Retracted journal article

Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 34 (8), 1047–1056. (Retraction published 2012, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38 [10], 1378)

5. Retraction notice for a journal article

de la Fuente, R., Bernad, A., Garcia-Castro, J., Martin, M. C., & Cigudosa, J. C. (2010). Retraction: Spontaneous human adult stem cell transformation. Cancer Research , 70 (16), 6682.

The Editors of the Lancet. (2010). Retraction—Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. The Lancet , 375 (9713), 445.

6. Abstract of a journal article from an abstract indexing database

Hare, L. R., & O'Neill, K. (2000). Effectiveness and efficiency in small academic peer groups: A case study (Accession No. 200010185) [Abstract from Sociological Abstracts]. Small Group Research , 31 (1), 24–53.

7. Monograph as part of a journal issue

Ganster, D. C., Schaubroeck, J., Sime, W. E., & Mayes, B. T. (1991). The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed adults [Monograph]. Journal of Applied Psychology , 76 (1), 143–168.

8. Online-only supplemental material to a journal article

Freeberg, T. M. (2019). From simple rules of individual proximity, complex and coordinated collective movement [Supplemental material]. Journal of Comparative Psychology , 133 (2), 141–142.

journal article summary sample

This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.

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Journal of educational psychology ®.

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Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper

Definition and Purpose of Abstracts

An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes:

It’s also worth remembering that search engines and bibliographic databases use abstracts, as well as the title, to identify key terms for indexing your published paper. So what you include in your abstract and in your title are crucial for helping other researchers find your paper or article.

If you are writing an abstract for a course paper, your professor may give you specific guidelines for what to include and how to organize your abstract. Similarly, academic journals often have specific requirements for abstracts. So in addition to following the advice on this page, you should be sure to look for and follow any guidelines from the course or journal you’re writing for.

The Contents of an Abstract

Abstracts contain most of the following kinds of information in brief form. The body of your paper will, of course, develop and explain these ideas much more fully. As you will see in the samples below, the proportion of your abstract that you devote to each kind of information—and the sequence of that information—will vary, depending on the nature and genre of the paper that you are summarizing in your abstract. And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies.

Here are the typical kinds of information found in most abstracts:

Your abstract should be intelligible on its own, without a reader’s having to read your entire paper. And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper. In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research.

When to Write Your Abstract

Although you might be tempted to write your abstract first because it will appear as the very first part of your paper, it’s a good idea to wait to write your abstract until after you’ve drafted your full paper, so that you know what you’re summarizing.

What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines. We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts.

Choosing Verb Tenses within Your Abstract

The social science sample (Sample 1) below uses the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study. That abstract also uses the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study. The authors use the past tense to describe previous research.

The humanities sample (Sample 2) below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past (the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the 1970s and 80s) and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article.

The science samples (Samples 3 and 4) below use the past tense to describe what previous research studies have done and the research the authors have conducted, the methods they have followed, and what they have found. In their rationale or justification for their research (what remains to be done), they use the present tense. They also use the present tense to introduce their study (in Sample 3, “Here we report . . .”) and to explain the significance of their study (In Sample 3, This reprogramming . . . “provides a scalable cell source for. . .”).

Sample Abstract 1

From the social sciences.

Reporting new findings about the reasons for increasing economic homogamy among spouses

Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and Christine R. Schwartz. “Trends in Economic Homogamy: Changes in Assortative Mating or the Division of Labor in Marriage?” Demography , vol. 54, no. 3, 2017, pp. 985-1005.

“The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the topic under study (the “economic resemblance of spouses”). This sentence also implies the question underlying this research study: what are the various causes—and the interrelationships among them—for this trend?] The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses’ paid labor—a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives’ labor supply. [Annotation for the previous two sentences: These next two sentences explain what previous research has demonstrated. By pointing out the limitations in the methods that were used in previous studies, they also provide a rationale for new research.] We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to decompose the increase in the correlation between spouses’ earnings and its contribution to inequality between 1970 and 2013 into parts due to (a) changes in assortative mating, and (b) changes in the division of paid labor. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The data, research and analytical methods used in this new study.] Contrary to what has often been assumed, the rise of economic homogamy and its contribution to inequality is largely attributable to changes in the division of paid labor rather than changes in sorting on earnings or earnings potential. Our findings indicate that the rise of economic homogamy cannot be explained by hypotheses centered on meeting and matching opportunities, and they show where in this process inequality is generated and where it is not.” (p. 985) [Annotation for the previous two sentences: The major findings from and implications and significance of this study.]

Sample Abstract 2

From the humanities.

Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications

Emily Callaci. “Street Textuality: Socialism, Masculinity, and Urban Belonging in Tanzania’s Pulp Fiction Publishing Industry, 1975-1985.” Comparative Studies in Society and History , vol. 59, no. 1, 2017, pp. 183-210.

“From the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, a network of young urban migrant men created an underground pulp fiction publishing industry in the city of Dar es Salaam. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the context for this research and announces the topic under study.] As texts that were produced in the underground economy of a city whose trajectory was increasingly charted outside of formalized planning and investment, these novellas reveal more than their narrative content alone. These texts were active components in the urban social worlds of the young men who produced them. They reveal a mode of urbanism otherwise obscured by narratives of decolonization, in which urban belonging was constituted less by national citizenship than by the construction of social networks, economic connections, and the crafting of reputations. This article argues that pulp fiction novellas of socialist era Dar es Salaam are artifacts of emergent forms of male sociability and mobility. In printing fictional stories about urban life on pilfered paper and ink, and distributing their texts through informal channels, these writers not only described urban communities, reputations, and networks, but also actually created them.” (p. 210) [Annotation for the previous sentences: The remaining sentences in this abstract interweave other essential information for an abstract for this article. The implied research questions: What do these texts mean? What is their historical and cultural significance, produced at this time, in this location, by these authors? The argument and the significance of this analysis in microcosm: these texts “reveal a mode or urbanism otherwise obscured . . .”; and “This article argues that pulp fiction novellas. . . .” This section also implies what previous historical research has obscured. And through the details in its argumentative claims, this section of the abstract implies the kinds of methods the author has used to interpret the novellas and the concepts under study (e.g., male sociability and mobility, urban communities, reputations, network. . . ).]

Sample Abstract/Summary 3

From the sciences.

Reporting a new method for reprogramming adult mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells

Lalit, Pratik A., Max R. Salick, Daryl O. Nelson, Jayne M. Squirrell, Christina M. Shafer, Neel G. Patel, Imaan Saeed, Eric G. Schmuck, Yogananda S. Markandeya, Rachel Wong, Martin R. Lea, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Timothy A. Hacker, Wendy C. Crone, Michael Kyba, Daniel J. Garry, Ron Stewart, James A. Thomson, Karen M. Downs, Gary E. Lyons, and Timothy J. Kamp. “Lineage Reprogramming of Fibroblasts into Proliferative Induced Cardiac Progenitor Cells by Defined Factors.” Cell Stem Cell , vol. 18, 2016, pp. 354-367.

“Several studies have reported reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes; however, reprogramming into proliferative induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) remains to be accomplished. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence announces the topic under study, summarizes what’s already known or been accomplished in previous research, and signals the rationale and goals are for the new research and the problem that the new research solves: How can researchers reprogram fibroblasts into iCPCs?] Here we report that a combination of 11 or 5 cardiac factors along with canonical Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling reprogrammed adult mouse cardiac, lung, and tail tip fibroblasts into iCPCs. The iCPCs were cardiac mesoderm-restricted progenitors that could be expanded extensively while maintaining multipo-tency to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, iCPCs injected into the cardiac crescent of mouse embryos differentiated into cardiomyocytes. iCPCs transplanted into the post-myocardial infarction mouse heart improved survival and differentiated into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. [Annotation for the previous four sentences: The methods the researchers developed to achieve their goal and a description of the results.] Lineage reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs provides a scalable cell source for drug discovery, disease modeling, and cardiac regenerative therapy.” (p. 354) [Annotation for the previous sentence: The significance or implications—for drug discovery, disease modeling, and therapy—of this reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs.]

Sample Abstract 4, a Structured Abstract

Reporting results about the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis, from a rigorously controlled study

Note: This journal requires authors to organize their abstract into four specific sections, with strict word limits. Because the headings for this structured abstract are self-explanatory, we have chosen not to add annotations to this sample abstract.

Wald, Ellen R., David Nash, and Jens Eickhoff. “Effectiveness of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children.” Pediatrics , vol. 124, no. 1, 2009, pp. 9-15.

“OBJECTIVE: The role of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in children is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high-dose amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate in the treatment of children diagnosed with ABS.

METHODS : This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children 1 to 10 years of age with a clinical presentation compatible with ABS were eligible for participation. Patients were stratified according to age (<6 or ≥6 years) and clinical severity and randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (90 mg/kg) with potassium clavulanate (6.4 mg/kg) or placebo. A symptom survey was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30. Patients were examined on day 14. Children’s conditions were rated as cured, improved, or failed according to scoring rules.

RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred thirty-five children with respiratory complaints were screened for enrollment; 139 (6.5%) had ABS. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, and 56 were randomly assigned. The mean age was 6630 months. Fifty (89%) patients presented with persistent symptoms, and 6 (11%) presented with nonpersistent symptoms. In 24 (43%) children, the illness was classified as mild, whereas in the remaining 32 (57%) children it was severe. Of the 28 children who received the antibiotic, 14 (50%) were cured, 4 (14%) were improved, 4(14%) experienced treatment failure, and 6 (21%) withdrew. Of the 28children who received placebo, 4 (14%) were cured, 5 (18%) improved, and 19 (68%) experienced treatment failure. Children receiving the antibiotic were more likely to be cured (50% vs 14%) and less likely to have treatment failure (14% vs 68%) than children receiving the placebo.

CONCLUSIONS : ABS is a common complication of viral upper respiratory infections. Amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate results in significantly more cures and fewer failures than placebo, according to parental report of time to resolution.” (9)

Some Excellent Advice about Writing Abstracts for Basic Science Research Papers, by Professor Adriano Aguzzi from the Institute of Neuropathology at the University of Zurich:

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How to write and structure a journal article

Sharing your research data  can be hugely  beneficial to your career , as well as to the scholarly community and wider society. But before you do so, there are some important ethical considerations to remember.

What are the rules and guidance you should follow, when you begin to think about how to write and structure a journal article? Ruth First Prize winner Steven Rogers, PhD said the first thing is to be passionate about what you write.

Steven Nabieu Rogers, Ruth First Prize winner.

Let’s go through some of the best advice that will help you pinpoint the features of a journal article, and how to structure it into a compelling research paper.

Planning for your article

When planning to write your article, make sure it has a central message that you want to get across. This could be a novel aspect of methodology that you have in your PhD study, a new theory, or an interesting modification you have made to theory or a novel set of findings.

2018 NARST Award winner Marissa Rollnick advised that you should decide what this central focus is, then create a paper outline bearing in mind the need to:

Isolate a manageable size

Create a coherent story/argument

Make the argument self-standing

Target the journal readership

Change the writing conventions from that used in your thesis

Vector illustration of 4 puzzle pieces, three are shades of blue, one is pink.

Get familiar with the journal you want to submit to

It is a good idea to choose your target journal before you start to write your paper. Then you can tailor your writing to the journal’s requirements and readership, to increase your chances of acceptance.

When selecting your journal think about audience, purposes, what to write about and why. Decide the kind of article to write. Is it a report, position paper, critique or review? What makes your argument or research interesting? How might the paper add value to the field?

If you need more guidance on how to choose a journal,  here is our guide to narrow your focus.

journal article summary sample

Once you’ve chosen your target journal, take the time to read a selection of articles already published – particularly focus on those that are relevant to your own research.

This can help you get an understanding of what the editors may be looking for, then you can guide your writing efforts.

The  Think. Check. Submit.  initiative provides tools to help you evaluate whether the journal you’re planning to send your work to is trustworthy.

The journal’s  aims and scope  is also an important resource to refer back to as you write your paper – use it to make sure your article aligns with what the journal is trying to accomplish.

Keep your message focused

The next thing you need to consider when writing your article is your target audience. Are you writing for a more general audience or is your audience experts in the same field as you? The journal you have chosen will give you more information on the type of audience that will read your work.

When you know your audience, focus on your main message to keep the attention of your readers. A lack of focus is a common problem and can get in the way of effective communication.

journal article summary sample

Stick to the point. The strongest journal articles usually have one point to make. They make that point powerfully, back it up with evidence, and position it within the field.

How to format and structure a journal article

The format and structure of a journal article is just as important as the content itself, it helps to clearly guide the reader through.

How do I format a journal article?

Individual journals will have their own specific formatting requirements, which you can find in the  instructions for authors.

You can save time on formatting by downloading a template from our  library of templates  to apply to your article text. These templates are accepted by many of our journals. Also, a large number of our journals now offer  format-free submission,  which allows you to submit your paper without formatting your manuscript to meet that journal’s specific requirements.

General structure for writing an academic journal article

The title of your article is one of the first indicators readers will get of your research and concepts. It should be concise, accurate, and informative. You should include your most relevant keywords in your title, but avoid including abbreviations and formulae.

Keywords are an essential part of producing a journal article. When writing a journal article you must select keywords that you would like your article to rank for.

Keywords help potential readers to discover your article when conducting research using search engines.

The purpose of your abstract is to express the key points of your research, clearly and concisely. An abstract must always be well considered, as it is the primary element of your work that readers will come across.

An abstract should be a short paragraph (around 300 words) that summarizes the findings of your journal article. Ordinarily an abstract will be comprised of:

What your research is about

What methods have been used

What your main findings are


Acknowledgements can appear to be a small aspect of your journal article, however it is still important. This is where you acknowledge the individuals who do not qualify for co-authorship, but contributed to your article intellectually, financially, or in some other manner.

When you acknowledge someone in your academic texts, it gives you more integrity as a writer as it shows that you are not claiming other academic’s ideas as your own intellectual property. It can also aid your readers in their own research journeys.

journal article summary sample


An introduction is a pivotal part of the article writing process. An introduction not only introduces your topic and your stance on the topic, but it also (situates/contextualizes) your argument in the broader academic field.

The main body is where your main arguments and your evidence are located. Each paragraph will encapsulate a different notion and there will be clear linking between each paragraph.

Your conclusion should be an interpretation of your results, where you summarize all of the concepts that you introduced in the main body of the text in order of most to least important. No new concepts are to be introduced in this section.

References and citations

References and citations should be well balanced, current and relevant. Although every field is different, you should aim to cite references that are not more than 10 years old if possible. The studies you cite should be strongly related to your research question.

Clarity is key

Make your writing accessible by using clear language. Writing that is easy to read, is easier to understand too.

You may want to write for a global audience – to have your research reach the widest readership. Make sure you write in a way that will be understood by any reader regardless of their field or whether English is their first language.

Write your journal article with confidence, to give your reader certainty in your research. Make sure that you’ve described your methodology and approach; whilst it may seem obvious to you, it may not to your reader. And don’t forget to explain acronyms when they first appear.

journal article summary sample

Engage your audience. Go back to thinking about your audience; are they experts in your field who will easily follow technical language, or are they a lay audience who need the ideas presented in a simpler way?

Be aware of other literature in your field, and reference it

Make sure to tell your reader how your article relates to key work that’s already published. This doesn’t mean you have to review every piece of previous relevant literature, but show how you are building on previous work to avoid accidental plagiarism.

journal article summary sample

When you reference something, fully understand its relevance to your research so you can make it clear for your reader. Keep in mind that recent references highlight awareness of all the current developments in the literature that you are building on. This doesn’t mean you can’t include older references, just make sure it is clear why you’ve chosen to.

How old can my references be?

Your literature review should take into consideration the current state of the literature.

There is no specific timeline to consider. But note that your subject area may be a factor. Your colleagues may also be able to guide your decision.

Researcher’s view

Grasian Mkodzongi, Ruth First Prize Winner

Top tips to get you started

Communicate your unique point of view to stand out. You may be building on a concept already in existence, but you still need to have something new to say. Make sure you say it convincingly, and fully understand and reference what has gone before.

Editor’s view

Professor Len Barton, Founding Editor of Disability and Society

Be original

Now you know the features of a journal article and how to construct it. This video is an extra resource to use with this guide to help you know what to think about before you write your journal article.

Expert help for your manuscript

Taylor & Francis Editing Services  offers a full range of pre-submission manuscript preparation services to help you improve the quality of your manuscript and submit with confidence.

Related resources

How to write your title and abstract

Journal manuscript layout guide

Improve the quality of English of your article

How to edit your paper

Generate accurate APA citations for free

The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation

How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style | Format & Example

Published on November 5, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 17, 2022.

An APA Style citation for a journal article includes the author name(s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Table of contents, basic format for an apa journal citation, citing unpublished journal articles, special issue of a journal, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.

The article title appears in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name is italicized and in title case (all major words capitalized).

When viewing a journal article online, the required information can usually be found on the access page.

APA journal source info

Articles published only in PDF form sometimes provide an e-locator instead of a page range; in this case, include the e-locator in your citation.

Linking to online journal articles

A DOI should always be used where available. Some databases do not list one, but you may still find one by looking for the same article on another database. You don’t need to include the name of the database in your citation.

If no DOI is available and the article was accessed through a database, do not include a URL.

If the article is not from a database, but from another website (e.g. the journal’s own website), you should ideally use a stable URL: this is often provided under a “share” button. Otherwise, copy the URL from your browser’s address bar.

When citing from an article that has not yet been formally published, the format varies depending on whether or not it has already been submitted to a journal. Note that different formats are used for unpublished dissertations and raw data .

Unpublished article

The text of an article which has not yet appeared online or in publication (i.e. which is only available directly from the author) should be cited as an “Unpublished manuscript.” The title is italicized and information about the author’s university is included if available:

Article submitted for publication

An article that has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as a “Manuscript submitted for publication.” The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included:

Article in press

An article that has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as “in press.” Here, the name of the journal is included, university information is omitted, and “in press” is written in place of the year (both in the reference list and the in-text citation):

Are your APA in-text citations flawless?

The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!

Get started!

journal article summary sample

If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author’s name and article title:

Note that if you want to cite an individual article from the special issue, it can just be cited in the basic format for journal articles.

In an APA journal citation , if a DOI (digital object identifier) is available for an article, always include it.

If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a database or in print, just omit the DOI.

If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a website other than a database (for example, the journal’s own website), include a URL linking to the article.

Include the DOI at the very end of the APA reference entry . If you’re using the 6th edition APA guidelines, the DOI is preceded by the label “doi:”. In the 7th edition , the DOI is preceded by ‘’.

APA citation example (7th edition)

Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2016). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review , 35 (5), 576–586.

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

You may include up to 20 authors in a reference list entry .

When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author:

Davis, Y., Smith, J., Caulfield, F., Pullman, H., Carlisle, J., Donahue, S. D., James, F., O’Donnell, K., Singh, J., Johnson, L., Streefkerk, R., McCombes, S., Corrieri, L., Valck, X., Baldwin, F. M., Lorde, J., Wardell, K., Lao, W., Yang, P., . . . O’Brien, T. (2012).

In an APA reference list , journal article citations include only the year of publication, not the exact date, month, or season.

The inclusion of volume and issue numbers makes a more specific date unnecessary.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, June 17). How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style | Format & Example. Scribbr. Retrieved March 6, 2023, from

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JSmol Viewer

A comprehensive review of high-pressure laser-induced materials processing, part i: laser-heated diamond anvil cells.

journal article summary sample

1. Introduction

2. methodology, 3. overview of laser processing in diamond anvil cells (l-dacs), 4. dacs: fundamentals and historical development, 5. lh-dacs: fundamentals, historical development, and key experiments, 5.1. lh-dacs: physical processes, 5.2. lh-dac: historical development, 5.3. lh-dac: key experiments, 6. lc-dacs: fundamentals and historical development, 6.1. spectroscopic pressure measurements, 6.2. optical temperature measurements by micro-scale multi-band pyrometry, 6.3. laser-based spectroscopy and characterisation, 7. conclusions and future work.

“ Just when I think I have heard of all the analytical methods that can be applied to samples in a diamond anvil cell, I read a paper describing yet another new method. There is no apparent end in sight. The future of diamond anvil cell research appears to be very bright indeed …” [ 2 ].

Author Contributions

Data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

Share and Cite

Alabdulkarim, M.E.; Maxwell, W.D.; Thapliyal, V.; Maxwell, J.L. A Comprehensive Review of High-Pressure Laser-Induced Materials Processing, Part I: Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cells . J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2022 , 6 , 111.

Alabdulkarim ME, Maxwell WD, Thapliyal V, Maxwell JL. A Comprehensive Review of High-Pressure Laser-Induced Materials Processing, Part I: Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cells . Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing . 2022; 6(5):111.

Alabdulkarim, Mohamad E., Wendy D. Maxwell, Vibhor Thapliyal, and James L. Maxwell. 2022. "A Comprehensive Review of High-Pressure Laser-Induced Materials Processing, Part I: Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cells " Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing 6, no. 5: 111.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

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Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

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Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited periodical sources. For a complete list of how to cite periodical publications, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

APA style dictates that authors are named with their last name followed by their initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article. If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.  Title of Periodical , volume number (issue number), pages.

Article in Print Journal

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening.  The New Criterion, 15 (3), 5 – 13.

Note: APA 7 advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source. The example above assumes no DOI is available.

Article in Electronic Journal

As noted above, when citing an article in an electronic journal, include a DOI if one is associated with the article.

Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning.  Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement ,   6 (1), 11 – 16.

DOIs may not always be available. In these cases, use a URL. Many academic journals provide stable URLs that function similarly to DOIs. These are preferable to ordinary URLs copied and pasted from the browser's address bar.

Denny, H., Nordlof, J., & Salem, L. (2018). "Tell me exactly what it was that I was doing that was so bad": Understanding the needs and expectations of working-class students in writing centers. Writing Center Journal , 37 (1), 67 – 98.

Note that, in the example above, there is a quotation in the title of the article. Ordinary titles lack quotation marks.

Article in a Magazine

Peterzell, J. (1990, April). Better late than never.  Time, 135 (17), 20 –2 1.

Article in a Newspaper

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies.  The Country Today , 1A, 2A.

Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book  The self-knower: A hero under control , by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert].  Contemporary Psychology , 38 (5), 466–467.

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Open Access


Research Article

Co-infection of tick-borne bacterial pathogens in ticks in Inner Mongolia, China

Contributed equally to this work with: Dan Liu, Wulantuya

Roles Data curation, Methodology, Software, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Tick-borne Zoonotic Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, College of Hetao, Bayan Nur city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

Roles Data curation, Methodology, Writing – original draft

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Validation

Roles Project administration, Resources

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis

Affiliation Department of Bacteriology-I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Affiliation Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

Affiliation Department of Virology-I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Writing – review & editing

* E-mail: [email protected]

ORCID logo


This is an uncorrected proof.

Fig 1

Tick-borne infectious diseases pose a serious health threat in certain regions of the world. Emerging infectious diseases caused by novel tick-borne pathogens have been reported that are causing particular concern. Several tick-borne diseases often coexist in the same foci, and a single vector tick can transmit two or more pathogens at the same time, which greatly increases the probability of co-infection in host animals and humans and can lead to an epidemic of tick-borne disease. The lack of epidemiological data and information on the specific clinical symptoms related to co-infection with tick-borne pathogens means that it is not currently possible to accurately and rapidly distinguish between a single pathogen infection and co-infection with multiple pathogens, which can have serious consequences. Inner Mongolia in the north of China is endemic for tick-borne infectious diseases, especially in the eastern forest region. Previous studies have found that more than 10% of co-infections were in host-seeking ticks. However, the lack of data on the specific types of co-infection with pathogens makes clinical treatment difficult. In our study, we present data on the co-infection types and the differences in co-infection among different ecological regions through genetic analysis of tick samples collected throughout Inner Mongolia. Our findings may aid clinicians in the diagnosis of concomitant tick-borne infectious diseases.

Author summary

Ticks carry and transmit a variety of pathogens, and their host animals are widely distributed in nature with diverse epidemic links, so that several tick-borne diseases can coexist in the same foci, and even one type of tick or one tick can carry a variety of pathogens at the same time, these factors pose a serious public health threat. In our study, we summarized the regional differences in tick infection and co-infection rates outcomes in all Inner Mongolia of China, and found that pathogen diversity varied with ecogeographic differences such as gobi desert, grassland and forest. A variety of tick-borne bacterial pathogens were identified, with an overall high prevalence rate (61.4% of ticks infected), among infected ticks, 24.3% were co-infected. An unexpected high infection and co-infection rates of ticks collected from the Forest region of eastern Inner Mongolia (sample area 1) was detected. Geographical differences affect tick species and tick-borne pathogens, so the potential threat to humans or animals is also different. In particular, that that knowledge of co-infections is important as they do not just present diagnostic challenges, but the pathogens might play different roles within their respective hosts, thus modulating disease severity.

Citation: Liu D, Wulantuya, Fan H, Li X, Li F, Gao T, et al. (2023) Co-infection of tick-borne bacterial pathogens in ticks in Inner Mongolia, China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 17(3): e0011121.

Editor: Johan Van Weyenbergh, KU Leuven, BELGIUM

Received: February 24, 2022; Accepted: January 27, 2023; Published: March 9, 2023

Copyright: © 2023 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: The research was supported by the following grants: Science and Technology Program of Inner Mongolia (to Gaowa); The Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia (No. 2021MS03029 to Wulantuya); Bayan Nur Doctoral Scientific Research Station (No. BKZ2016 to Gaowa); The Grassland Elite Program of Inner Mongolia (to Gaowa); The Hetao Elite Program of Bayan Nur (to Gaowa); Inner Mongolia Higher Education Science and Technology Research Project (No. NJZY21185 to DL). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: All the authors declare that there are no competing interests.


Tick-borne pathogens are transmitted via hematophagous blood-sucking ticks to hosts (including humans), in which they may cause infectious disease. In some cases, ticks harbor multiple pathogens, which can result in co-infection. The two forms of co-infection are interspecific infection and intraspecific infection with different genospecies, and regional differences between these two types of infection have been reported [ 1 – 3 ]. Distinct environmental conditions provide the habitat for specific tick species and several tick-borne diseases often coexist in the same foci, which defines their geographical distribution and, consequently, the areas of risk for human tick-borne infections [ 4 – 6 ]. In these areas, the probability of co-infection of host animals and humans is greatly increased, leading to an epidemic of tick-borne disease.

During the 20th century, Mitchell and colleagues proposed serological evidence of co-infection with Borrelia burgdorferi , Babesia , and human granulocytic Ehrlichia species in residents of Wisconsin and Minnesota in the USA [ 7 ]. In a 4-year prospective study conducted in Germany and Latvia, 75 of 192 patients (39%) were co-infected with tick-borne pathogens, and 61 of the 75 patients were co-infected with B . burgdorferi and Babesia , with a co-infection rate of 81% in Ixodes ricinus ticks [ 8 ]. Dibernardo and colleagues reported co-infection of B . burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Canada [ 9 ]. These studies suggested that co-infection of B . burgdorferi with Babesia is common in both patients and tick samples. Lu and coworkers also found Candidatus R. tarasevichiae infection in patients with severe fever that were also infected with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, with a co-infection rate of 9.4% (77/823) in China [ 10 ]. The results of laboratory examination and clinical manifestations suggested that the co-infection group included more severe cases than the single infection group. Furthermore, the course of disease was longer, the recovery of laboratory indicators was slower, and fatalities were reported among the co-infection group [ 10 , 11 ].

Located on the border of China and Russia, the Greater Hinggan Mountains in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia are rich in wildlife and have a diverse ecosystem. This region is one of the major epidemic areas of tick-borne infectious diseases in China because its unique geographical and ecological features make it an ideal habitat for ticks [ 3 , 12 – 14 ]. In Inner Mongolia, and elsewhere in China and the rest of the world, limited research has been carried out on the occurrence of different genospecies in co-infections in host-questing ticks, despite progress on tick-borne infections. Indeed, most studies have focused on the identification of diversity in a single or a few pathogens, or on the prevalence of pathogen species [ 15 , 16 ]. Our present study aimed to detect the co-infection rates and co-infection diversity of tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three different ecological sites in Inner Mongolia.

Materials and methods

Ethics statement.

The collection of ticks from the body surface of cattle, goats, and horses in this study was verbally approved by the animal owners and performed in strict accordance with the National Guidelines for Experimental Animal Welfare of China (2006–398). In addition, it has been applied and reviewed by the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of the Medical Department of Hetao College, and it has been put on record in accordance with the "Animal Experimental Ethics Review Measures of Hetao College" ([2022] No. 112).

Study area and tick sampling sites

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is located in the northern frontier of China (97°E–126°E; 37°N–53°N), bordering Mongolia and Russia 4200 km to the north. The natural grassland in Inner Mongolia is vast and broad, with the total area ranking highest among the five grasslands in China, and it is an important region for livestock production. The topography of Inner Mongolia comprises mainly the Mongolian plateau, which is complex and diverse in form, with an average elevation of about 1000 m and a temperature that changes greatly between winter and summer. The sampling sites for this study were distributed across 103 counties (banners) of 12 league sites, covering three ecologically and geographically distinct areas of Inner Mongolia ( Fig 1 ).


Geographical areas used for sampling were located in the north of China, and were divided mainly on the basis of different ecological and environmental characteristics. Sampling area 1 was a mainly forested habitat, sampling area 2 was a grassland habitat, and sampling area 3 was the semi-desertification steppe / Gobi Desert. The tick sampling collection period was from May 2015 until June 2019. ①—Sampling area 1 covering two leagues: Hulunbuir and Hinggan. ②—Sampling area 2 including Hohhot, Ulanqab and Xilin Gol, Tongliao and Chifeng. ③—Sampling area 3 including Baotou, Wuhai, Ordos, Bayan Nur, and Alxa. Map source: National Earth System Science Data Center ( ).

From March to September of each year from 2015 to 2019, ticks were collected from vegetation in the forest by the lab-cloth flagging method from area 1, and exoparasitic ticks were collected from cattle, goat, sheep, camel and horse by the animal physical examination method in area 2 and 3. Each area represented a distinct habitat. In sampling area 1, a forested area in the north-eastern part of Inner Mongolia, the main habitat was primeval forest at an altitude of 250–1745 m, with an average annual temperature of ˗3.5°C, and annual precipitation of 300–450 mm. In sampling area 2, a grassland area in central Inner Mongolia, the habitat is considered a frigid temperate zone of semi damp grassland with monsoonal conditions, at an altitude of 800–1200 m, and with annual precipitation of 150–400 mm. In sampling area 3, an area encompassing the Gobi Desert and the semi-desertification steppe of the western part of Inner Mongolia, the land is arid, at an altitude of 800–1500 m, and with annual precipitation of 40–240 mm ( Fig 1 ).

Land cover data of Inner Mongolia were obtained free from the National Earth System Science Data Sharing Infrastructure ( ). ArcGIS 10.2 software was used for visualization.

Tick species identification, DNA extraction, and detection

Ticks were identified by morphological characteristics combined with tick mt-rrs gene identification method [ 17 ]. The ticks were soaked with sodium hypophosphite, 75% ethanol, and iodophor for 5 min, then washed with sterile water, dried naturally, and DNA was extracted using a genomic extraction kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Extracted DNA was stored at ˗20°C before use.

Detection of co-infections with other tick-borne pathogens

PCR was used for detection of the citrate synthase gene ( gltA ) in spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR). The gltA -positive samples were classified, and representative samples were sequenced according to the tick species and regional distribution. The Rickettsia outer membrane protein A gene ( rOmpA ) was also amplified for confirmation of the gltA PCR [ 18 ]. The outer membrane protein-1 gene ( p28 / omp-1 ) of Ehrlichia and the major surface protein-2 gene ( p44 / msp2 ) of Anaplasma were detected by nested PCR [ 12 , 19 ]. Targeting the 16S rRNA gene for borreliae, DNA primers and Taqman probes were designed from conserved sequences. Specific DNA probes were labeled with two types of fluorescent dyes, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 4,7,2′-trichloro-7′-phenyl-6-carboxyfluorescein (VIC), and were conjugated with the non-fluorescent quencher (NFQ) and minor groove-binder architectural protein (MGB) according to a report by Barbour and colleagues ( Table 1 ) [ 20 ]. Multiplex PCR was performed by real-time PCR according to a previously described protocol [ 17 ]. The 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples were classified, and conventional PCRs based on the borrelial flagellin ( flaB ) gene or the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase ( glpQ ) gene were performed for confirmation of the real-time PCR results [ 21 ]. The PCR-specific primers and reaction conditions were derived from our previous studies [ 12 , 18 – 21 ], and the primers used in these experiments were synthesized by Nanjing Kingsley Biotechnology Company (Nanjing, China).


PCR product purification and sequence analysis

The obtained PCR products of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were gel-purified and cloned into a pCR2.1 vector using a TA Cloning kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Escherichia coli DH5 α (TOYOBO, Osaka, Japan) was transformed with the recombinant plasmids. Ten clones were selected randomly for each PCR product and the insert DNA of each clone was sequenced. Other PCR products were purified and sequenced directly. All obtained sequences were assembled and translated into protein sequences using the Sequencher program (Gene Codes Corp., Ann Arbor, MI, USA). Homology searches and species identification were performed using blastn or blastp ( ). Phylogenetic analysis of the flaB , glpQ , gltA , p28 / omp-1 , and p44 / msp2 sequences were performed using MEGA 7 with 1000 bootstrap replicates [ 22 ].

Statistical analysis

Excel software was used to establish the database and IBM SPSS Statistics version 19 (IBM R Corporation, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis. Data counts were described by the number of cases (percentage), and the chi-square test ( χ 2 ) was performed on data relating to the tick infection ratio of geographic groups. A P -value was determined to be statistically significant when P < 0.05.

Tick collection

During the spring to summer seasons (April to July) of 2015 to 2019, a total of 6456 adult tick samples belonging to eight species and five genera were collected in three different ecological environment sampling areas in Inner Mongolia. In sampling area 1, a total of 2949 ticks from five species were collected, of which 75.8% (2234/2949) were Ixodes persulcatus , followed by Haemaphysalis concinna (15.0%, 441/2949), Haemaphysalis douglasi (4.5%, 134/2949), Dermacentor nuttalli (4.1%, 120/2949), and Dermacentor silvarum (0.7%, 20/2949). In sampling area 2, a total of 1334 ticks from three species were collected, of which 68.9% (919/1334) were D . nuttalli , followed by Hyalomma asiaticum (28.6%, 381/1334), and Hyalomma marginatum (5.7%, 76/1334). In sampling area 3, a total of 2173 ticks from four species were collected, of which 50.5% (1097/2173) were D . nuttalli , followed by Hy . asiaticum (35.3%, 766/2173), Hy . marginatum (12.3%, 268/2173), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.9%, 42/2173) ( Table 2 and Fig 1 ).


Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks

As shown in Table 2 , tick-borne pathogens were detected in 61.4% (3966/6456) of all ticks collected from all sampling sites. The infection frequencies for male and female ticks were 64.6% (2300/3561) and 57.6% (1666/2895), respectively ( Table 2 ). In sampling area 1, of the 2949 ticks collected, 1921 were infected, with an infection rate of 65.1% (1921/2949). The infection rates for different tick species varied greatly. D . nuttalli had the highest infection rate of 90.8% (109/120), followed by Ha . concinna , I . persulcatus , and D . silvarum with 75.3% (332/441), 63.3% (1414/2234), and 60.0% (12/20) infection rates, respectively. Ha . douglasi showed the lowest infection rate of 40.3% (54/134) compared with the other tick species ( χ 2 = 94.867, P < 0.001). In sampling area 2, of the 1334 ticks collected, 756 were PCR-positive, with an infection rate of 56.7% (756/1334). The infection rates of Hy . asiaticum , D . nuttalli , and Hy . marginatum were 58.5% (223/381), 53.6% (493/919), and 52.6% (40/76), respectively ( χ 2 = 2.770, P = 0.250). In sampling area 3, of the 2173 ticks collected, 1289 were PCR-positive, with an infection rate of 59.3% (1289/2173). The infection rate for different tick species varied greatly. Hy . marginatum had the highest infection rate of 92.9% (249/268), followed by D . nuttalli and Hy . asiaticum with infection rates of 64.2% (704/1097) and 43.0% (329/766), respectively. R . turanicus had the lowest infection rate of 16.7% (7/42) ( χ 2 = 252.747, P < 0.001) ( Table 2 and Fig 1 ).

Sequencing of the PCR products revealed that the SFGR gltA gene shared 100% identity with Rickettsia raoultii (accession no. DQ365803), Candidatus R. tarasevichiae (accession no. MN450397), and Rickettsia sp. strain YN02 (accession no. KY411135). We performed rOmpA PCR of the gltA PCR-positive samples and confirmed that the results were consistent. Ehrlichial p28 / omp-1 multigenes were detected in E . chaffeensis (accession no. CP007480) (62.5%–100%), E . ewingii (accession no. AF287964) (65.5%–100%), E . muris (accession no. AB178807) (72.5%–100%), and Ehrlichia sp. strain HF565 (accession no. AB178803) (67.5%–100%). Anaplasma p44 / msp2 multigenes were detected in Anaplasma phagocytophilum (accession no. BAN28309) (67.5%–100%). The borrelial flaB and glpQ genes shared 100% identity with Borrelia afzelii strain HLJ01 (accession no. CP003882), Borrelia garinii strain NMJW1 (accession no. CP003866), Borrelia sp. HFW-21 (accession no. LC170020), and B . miyamotoi strain HT31 (accession no. AB900798). A recent study identified and reclassified B . garinii strain NMJW1 as B . bavariensis by whole genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing ( ). However, we did not perform either of these techniques in this study to further classify the Borrelia species detected from ticks. Thus, we temporally used the designation ‘ Borrelia sp.’, which was identical to B . garinii strain NMJW1, to represent the B . garinii -complex in this study.


Among the 6456 collected ticks, the overall prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was 61.4% (3966/6456), and the co-infection rate of the 3 regions was significantly different.

In sample area 1, of the 1921 infected ticks, co-infections were identified in 43.3% (831/1921). Among them, co-infection of I . persulcatus accounted for the majority of cases. In sample area 2, of the 756 infected ticks, co-infections were identified in 7.6% (58/756). Among them, co-infection of D . nuttalli and Hy . asiaticum accounted for 81.0% (47/58) and 19.0% (11/58) of cases, respectively. In sample area 3, of the 1289 infected ticks, all co-infections were detected with D . nuttalli , and the co-infection rate was 5.7% (73/1289). The co-infection rate in sample area 1 was significantly higher than that in sample areas 2 ( χ 2 = 317.145, P < 0.001) and 3 ( χ 2 = 530.261, P < 0.001) ( Table 2 ).

Pathogen detection and identification in co-infections

SFGR, Ehrlichia , Anaplasma , and Borrelia were detected in co-infections in all sampling sites. In sampling area 1, of the 831 co-infected ticks, most carried C . R . tarasevichiae , accounting for 86.2% (716/831), followed by the B . garinii -complex (including B . bavariensis and B . garinii ), with a DNA-positive rate of 59.8% (497/831). In sampling area 2, of the 58 co-infected ticks, all carried the B . garinii -complex, followed by R . raoultii , at a rate of 72.4% (42/58). In sampling area 3, of the 73 co-infected ticks, all carried R . raoultii , followed by the B . garinii -complex, at a rate of 84.9% (62/73) ( Table 3 ).


Co-infection between different pathogen types

In sampling area 1, co-infection between C . R . tarasevichiae and the B . garinii -complex was the most common, with a co-infection rate of 4.6% (297/6456), followed by C . R . tarasevichiae and A . phagocytophilum (1.7%; 108/6456). In sample areas 2 and 3, co-infection was most frequent for R . raoultii and the B . garinii -complex (39/6456; 0.6% and 63/6456; 1.0%, respectively) ( Table 4 ).


In sampling area 1, triple pathogen co-infection was identified in 190 ticks, 36 of which were infected with C . R . tarasevichiae , the B . garinii -complex, and B . miyamotoi (36/6456; 0.6%), followed by C . R . tarasevichiae , E . muris , and the B . garinii -complex (30/6456; 0.5%). In sampling area 2, only three ticks showed triple pathogen co-infection, comprising R . raoultii , E . muris , and the B . garinii -complex. In sampling area 3, no ticks were found to be co-infected with three different pathogens ( Table 4 ).

In sampling area 1, 25 ticks were detected to be co-infected with four different pathogens, eight of which were infected with C . R . tarasevichiae , E . muris , the B . garinii -complex, and B . miyamotoi , and eight were infected with C . R . tarasevichiae , A . phagocytophilum , the B . garinii -complex, and B . miyamotoi . In sampling areas 2 and 3, no ticks were found to be co-infected with four different pathogens ( Table 4 ).

Only in sampling area 1, was one tick found to be co-infected with five different pathogens, namely C . R . tarasevichiae , E . muris , A . phagocytophilum , the B . garinii -complex, and B . miyamotoi ( Table 4 ).

Co-infection with tick-borne pathogens has been suggested to reflect the fact that ticks can carry and transmit multiple pathogens and the need for ticks to switch to different hosts to complete their entire growth process, thereby increasing the likelihood of acquiring different pathogens from different hosts [ 23 , 24 ]. Co-infection can occur when a livestock tick carrying multiple pathogens or multiple ticks carrying multiple pathogens bite a person in succession [ 25 ].

In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the epidemiological status of 12 tick-borne bacterial pathogens of four genera was performed in co-infected ticks isolated in northern China. The important findings of our study were as follows. (1) The identification of a variety of tick-borne bacterial pathogens, with an overall high prevalence rate (61.4% of ticks infected). (2) The frequency of co-infection. Among infected ticks, 24.2% were co-infected, with co-infection of C . R . tarasevichiae and the B . garinii -complex being the most common. (3) The unexpected high infection and co-infection rates of ticks collected from the forest region of eastern Inner Mongolia (sample area 1). (4) The significant changes in the ecological and geographical distribution of the main dominant tick species, and the corresponding increase in pathogen diversity between the Gobi Desert and the semi-desertification steppe, and the grasslands and forest. Together, these results indicate the significant potential threat to public health of tick-borne pathogens.

In this study, we detected the B . garinii -complex in ticks. In a previous study, B . garinii , comprising of the formerly designated B . garinii and B . bavariensis , was reported to be distributed across China [ 26 ]. Although these two Borrelia spp. are distinguishable by multi-locus sequence typing [ 27 ], they cannot be distinguished by flaB -sequencing because of its low resolution. Therefore, it is highly probable that both the former B . garinii and B . bavariensis have previously been designated as B . garinii .

Inner Mongolia covers a wide geographic area from east to west, and the ecological environments across this region are therefore quite distinct. The vegetation that constitutes the tick habitat changes from east to west, from forests to grasslands to semi-desert grasslands to deserts. The distribution of tick species is closely related to host species and the ecological environment and, consequently, the risk of human tick-borne infection varies from region to region [ 4 – 6 ]. I . persulcatus was the dominant tick species in the eastern forest region (sample area 1). I . persulcatus is a typical forest tick species, which is dominant in conifer and broadleaved mixed forest, and its host range is wide, including domestic or wild medium and small mammals. The distribution of I . persulcatus covers Inner Mongolia [ 13 , 14 ], mainland China [ 28 ], and more specifically the southwest and northeast of China [ 29 – 32 ], among other places. D . nuttalli was the dominant tick species in the central and western grasslands (sample areas 2 and 3). D . nuttalli inhabits the arid semi-desert steppe regions, mainly parasitizing livestock and humans. The distribution of D . nuttalli covers Inner Mongolia [ 12 , 14 ], Gansu [ 33 ], and the southwest and northeast of China [ 29 , 31 , 32 ], among other places.

In sample area 1, C . R . tarasevichiae was found to reside with other pathogens in 23 co-infection patterns, accounting for 81.7% of co-infections. Among them, the co-infection of C . R . tarasevichiae and the B . garinii -complex was most common, followed by C . R . tarasevichiae and A . phagocytophilum . C . R . tarasevichiae was first identified in I . persulcatus ticks from various sites in Russia in 2001 [ 34 ]. Human infection with C . R . tarasevichiae was first reported in northeastern China in 2012 [ 35 ] and is widely distributed in eastern and northeastern China [ 11 , 36 , 37 ]. The forest region in northeast China is close to Russia in terms of geography. With the development of tourism, animal husbandry, and logging, human activities have increased the opportunity for humans, livestock, and ticks to come into contact, possibly creating conditions for the spread of C . R . tarasevichiae . A previous study found that B . burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ticks and mice in the Greater Khingan Mountains forest region of Inner Mongolia is mainly caused by B . garinii [ 38 ]. Pan and colleagues [ 39 ] also found that the co-infection rate of C . R . tarasevichiae and B . burgdorferi sensu lato was high (20%) in I . persulcatus in Heilongjiang Province. Co-infection with C . R . tarasevichiae has been reported to aggravate disease symptoms and has been linked with mortality [ 11 ]. Our results suggest that C . R . tarasevichiae has a high rate of co-infection with other pathogens, which highlights the importance of considering C . R . tarasevichiae in the differential diagnosis of other tick-borne pathogens in endemic regions. In sample areas 2 and 3, the most frequent genospecies association was between R . raoultii and B . garinii . Co-infection with B . garinii is relatively common [ 1 , 40 ]. R . raoultii is widely distributed in the steppe of central and western Inner Mongolia, and D . nuttalli is the main vector and host. In central and western Inner Mongolia, the grassland is arid and the vegetation coverage rate is low, but the parasitism rate of D . nuttalli remains high in spring and summer, which seriously affects local livestock production. The infection and co-infection rates in ticks from sample area 1 (deciduous and mixed forest vegetation) were the most serious, thus highlighting a significant disease risk in this area, a heavily frequented recreational area and tourist hotspot. In addition, the detection rate of Rickettsia and Borrelia was high in ticks in this study, indicating an increased probability of their co-infection with other pathogens.

In this study, the predominant host among co-infection cases was I . persulcatus , accounting for more than 85% of co-infections. It has been confirmed that I . persulcatus can be naturally infected with a variety of pathogens. Fu and colleagues [ 41 ] found that at least 40% of I . persulcatus individuals were co-infected, including both double and triple infections.

Co-infections might have consequences in terms of pathogen co-transmission [ 24 ], and the high co-infection rate among ticks poses a health threat to humans and livestock [ 3 , 42 ]. The clinical presentation of tick-borne-associated bacterial infections is similar, therefore, diagnosis is challenging and co-infection can be easily missed. The co-infecting pathogens might play different roles within their respective host, thus modulating disease severity [ 43 , 44 ].

Ecological changes and social development may have contributed to the emergence of the tick-borne diseases by placing people in increasing contact with ticks and potential animal reservoirs. Therefore, medical personnel should be trained in identified tick-borne disease hotspots (sample area 1), to improve the detection and identification of TBRD and treatment strategies to reduce the fatality rate linked to co-infection. Disease control and prevention personnel should also be trained to conduct epidemiological investigations and to control the spread and prevalence of outbreaks.

Our findings highlight the severity of tick-borne pathogen infections in the eastern forest region through the collection of field data across all regions of Inner Mongolia from 2015 to 2019. In response, it is hoped that relevant departments can pay increased attention to the co-infection of tick-borne pathogens, and conduct timely screening and clinical treatment for common co-infection patterns to avoid the occurrence of more serious complications.

In this study, sequencing was performed on some samples and R . raoultii was detected from D . nuttalli and C . R . tarasevichiae from I . persulcatus . Data from neighboring countries showed the presence of Rickettsia helvetica [ 45 ], but we failed to detect it within the scope of this investigation. Therefore, the genotypes of rickettsiae may be incomplete, and we will continue to expand the sample size to be sequenced for verification.


We are grateful to Prof. Hiroki Kawabatato for improving the English of our manuscript. We also thank Liwen Bianji (Edanz) ( ) for editing the language of a draft of this manuscript. Acknowledgment for the data support from "National Earth System Science Data Center, National Science & Technology Infrastructure of China ( )"

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How To Write An Article Review Template - Best Ideas

By: Angelina Grin

How To Write An Article Review Template - Best Ideas

Article Review - What is It?

Journal article review, research article review, science article review, using the apa format, using mla format, strong title for the review paper, cite the article just after the title, write an introduction before the opinions, form a thesis, main body: analyses, opinions, views, don’t forget about the reference section.

An article review is a versatile tool that makes it much easier to deliver important news to your audience. As well this is the idea to acquaint with novelties in the literary world.

To understand for what purpose and for what audience the text writes, mentally put yourself in the reader's shoes. Then it becomes clear that the reader wants to receive systematized and maximally detailed information about a relevant scientific article or journal.

The purpose of the article review is to unobtrusively and clearly and concisely present all vital information, using comparative analysis, statistical data, and other information. In a word, everything that gives information for thought and pushes to make a decision.

The written article review consists of giving a general assessment of its semantic load, meaningfulness, and information content. Thanks to the report, you can learn about the creator's professionalism and evaluate his manner of presenting information and writing.

To you write a writing analysis, it is necessary to discard all subjective judgments about the document. It would help if you were guided only by specific criteria.

In the beginning, the document read to evaluate it based on the degree of correspondence of the writing. It also looks at the logic of the presented material, semantic load, relevant information, and the degree of disclosure of the set theme.

The language of the writing and stylistic features are essential in the analysis. The work should be a single whole within the meaning. The headings of writing attract attention, and the essence of the text itself does not correspond to the theme at all. In this regard, the critique deals with this issue in detail.

Each of the problems posed should describe in stages. Accordingly, at the end of the work, you need to draw brief conclusions on each mini-topic.

Types of Article Reviews

Types of Article reviews:

All data provided in the journal text must be accurate and reliable. A creative analysis of a document, which everyone will pay attention to, will come out if you analyze its artistic, linguistic qualities. You will have to focus on the means of expressiveness used in the document, such as comparisons, metaphors, epithets, and more.

The journals that have just been published and entered the library are of interest to many readers. In public libraries, critiques of new magazines are predominantly universal in essence and informational in purpose.

These critiques were carried out promptly and systematically. The report includes a relatively large number of printed texts, and the primary attention in the story paid to the novelty of the information in the magazines.

The main document requires careful reading. It is necessary to focus on how scientific theory presents itself. As a rule, at the beginning of the material, the creator gives a couple of logical expressions about facts. Then he discusses them, putting forward further arguments, starting from the results of his experiments, research, and observations.

In doing so, keep in touch with the original scientific publication. And also indicate the information that the author of the article carries to the readers. All data provided in the paper must be accurate and reliable.

The analysis of this aspect is based on the objectivity of the collection of information for documents. If the truth of the data revealed as a result of the research is proven, this can become the basis for the conclusions' scientific validity. The goal of the editor is to clarify how the creator of the document registered the events.

An article review of a scientific document is an objective assessment of a written document according to several parameters — its base on the practical significance of the research conducted by the creator. Studying works on different themes is an opportunity to improve the editor's knowledge base in several areas.

The main difficulty lies in working with papers of scientists with little experience. When analyzing the specified part of the document, the editor compiles the stuff in the mode of answers to the following questions:

In the conclusion of the work done, the objectivity of the creator's findings with the information presented in the scientific document determines. Subjective judgment is a significant barrier to producing high-quality analyzes.

Tips on Formatting

For a clear understanding of the document's essence, it is repeatedly re-read, and formatting is done. Then pay attention to the logic of constructing structural elements, information essence, completeness of the theme.

Analysis of the document begins with a brief description of the source data. The first point is the correspondence of the name to the essence of the document.

The next step is to work out the level of the information essence of the document. The presence in the document of the necessary scientific facts confirming the paper carried out by the creator increases the quality of the document, the level of its information essence.

The creator's observance of the logic of the interconnection of structural elements simplifies the analysis of the presented document. Jumping from theme to theme, the absence of a step-by-step presentation of the problem under study are gross mistakes.

Documents are intended for magazines, newspapers, websites. The APA format uses the "author-date" quotation method. This means that the creator's name and the year of the source's paper should appear in the document, and full information about the source should appear in the list of references used.

If you use the APA format in your article review, you need to make bibliographic records according to the following principle:

Start With a Header with Citation

An article review should begin with a name, including citations from the source in question. Place the link at the top of the work. If an intention is mentioned from another text, then this is not a direct quotation of the stuff. Or if there is a link to an entire book, article. Or other assignments, only the creator and the year of the work should be indicated in the document, without page numbers.

Short quotations format according to the following principle: creator's name for the document, the name of the document, journal of the published document, volume and issue number, articles date, and page numbers for the document. If there is no creator, indicate the name and the year.

Quotes more extended than 40 words format as a separate block without quotation marks. Information about the creator, year of the card, the page should be formatted in the same way as in short quotes.

Write a Summary

Ability to accurately summarize an article is a skill that you will probably need to develop at some point during your university or college studies. This is an essential part of the learning process and a way to show the professor that you understand the materials. How to write a summary of an article , and what is it for?

The first item should consist of a summary of the stuff. Depending on the size of the item, the essence should be limited to a few items. In these not long paragraphs, you should only discuss the most important details.

These include the intention of the creator, then what the document creates for. How the research carried out, how it affects the audience, and what results in the exploration brought. The abstract is one of the abbreviated forms of scientific document submission.

In other words, this is a miniature document. Unlike abstract, which answers the question "What to write a document," a resume in a concentrated form presents the reader with an accurate statement of the results. A well-written resume allows the reader to familiarize himself with the study quickly.

Body of the Review

The creator's goal is not to turn the article reviews into a short bibliography but to objectively consider the degree of problem. You must provide a reasonable assessment of the published work of other researchers, drawing logical conclusions from the research done.

You should not give critical remarks, secondary facts, and information missing in the document, as well as repeat the name of the document and use references to sources and abbreviations. The estimated length is two to three paragraphs.

This is the most demanding creative stage, requiring knowledge of the theme, erudition, mastery of literary speech, and the ability to persuade and influence the audience. It is necessary to use a particular influence on readers - suggestion, persuasion.

Concluding the Review

The final part of the article reviews contains a summary of what has been said and whether to read the document to other people. The main goal of the evaluation is to interest the reader, push him to read magazines on this theme, or draw attention to new arrivals.

This form of the work does not fully disclose the essence of the article, but only introduces intrigue, raises many questions. The most difficult of the total, which the document critique method requires, is to conclude with the so-called "reading attitude": "when you read, try to answer the question ...".

In the end, write an overview of the main parameters, summarizing all the positive aspects described in the document. That is, make a bias on how it is useful to your information or promoted product? What knowledge will the user gain? And don't forget that completion is no more than 10% of the article review.

Citation and Revision

Quotations are often included in written texts. You understand that in this way you can give solidity to your work. The incorrect quotation may at least irritate the first reader of your work - the teacher. Perhaps, you should not test his nervous system for strength, but it is better to familiarize yourself with the approaches to the design of quotes in the ARA style.

It would help if you understood: in the document of the work itself, you write a minimum of information about the source and indicate the complete data in the list. After the statement that you quote in the document, the creator and the year of the card write in brackets. This is the most common method, although it can vary.

It happens that the creator of the magazine is not listed. Then only its name and year can be used. If a quote contains more than four dozen words, it takes out in a separate block; quotes are not put.

The MLA style is the most widely used format for documenting and citing sources in the humanities. In the MLA format, the link to the quotation's creator in the document itself is brief and precise so that the reader can easily find him in the bibliography.

The source of information indicates in parentheses in the "author-page" format. This means that only the creator's name and the page number from which the quotation take should give in the document. Full information on the source must be provided on the page "Used literature."

Article Review Template Ideas by Experts

It is best to analyze the material by printing it or in a document editor. So it is convenient to take notes in the margins and highlight individual sections of the document. Before starting a work, make sure that the page numbering in the original and the copy matches are necessary to refer to the text when analyzing it correctly.

After an introductory reading, you need to analyze the document in more detail to highlight the main theses, the main arguments on which the creator insists. During the analysis, you will have to return to them to assess how convincingly he proves his idea.

We have prepared a template for visual viewing. It includes everything from the headline to the link. Although the name and subheadings change depending on the type of document, the necessary information and structure do not change. If you are looking for a business plan template , we recommend browsing our intentions for inspiration.

The heading should leave a mark in memory. 80% of search users will limit themselves to just viewing your name. For the name, you can separate several words that have no negative and positive connotations.

Positive words: excellent, opportunity, result, active development. Negative words: no need, don't know, complicated, never, hard to imagine. A 6-word title is considered optimal.

Users quickly scan not only document content, but also heading lists. The gaze can cover the first three and last three words - the great place for a catchy phrase and main intention.

The name of the document must correspond to its essence. It is hardly necessary to explain in more detail the need for this. Nevertheless, when the document is ready, be sure to check if the name correctly reflects the material's essence.

Under the heading, quote one of the sentences in the document that you want to share your impressions about. This way, people will see the original version and then read your story. All readers will appreciate such a smart solution. Don't forget to look at the citation method, and it should display one format.

For example, for a book report format , you can use either the APA or MLA style. Also, keep this formatting manner in the rest of the academic paper. If you quote from the work of another creator, then the quote must be put in quotation marks and after it put a link to the source.

You can form a quote in another way, indicating the creators' names, the year of the work, and page numbers in brackets after the quote. However, do not forget to include the full reference to the work in the bibliography at the end of the work.

For example, to cite a case study, you can use Chicago, Harvard, and Oxford. What is a case study , and how to analyze it? The case study provides an opportunity to explore the problem more in-depth and find a solution. The main document should be as objective and meaningful as possible.

Direct immersion in judgments and impressions can confuse the reader. You must act gradually. Writers think that it is enough to rephrase the original magazine document, which will be enough, but this is not so.

The introduction will justify the relevance and significance of the topic, the formulation of the thing of the article review, its purpose, and objectives. In the first sentence, it is necessary to reflect the information situation that has developed in the industry and society as a whole around a particular thing of article review.

Compositionally, the first sentence of the critique consists of two structural components: the beginning and the description of the study's subject. The third part of the presentation is the end-transition to the analytical part of the critique. These parts should outline the most critical, challenging, and promising questions and particular topics.

The introduction gradually moves to the central part, so the gradual transmission of thought is an essential component. At the end of the introduction paragraph, write a strong thesis.

Now you need to know what is the essence of the position of the article review. At the same time, the article review is a combination of the most exciting part of the document and a lack.

Please stick to the uniqueness of the words; it should not be like a hundred other theses. But at the same time, it must be understandable for others and readable.

Remember that the abstract is an abbreviated presentation of the report; try to formulate it briefly. A position is the main or one of the primary thoughts of the creator.

The thesis is a summary of the main points of any project or written work. It is in demand when it is necessary to formulate the main provisions of your work for the public as compactly as possible to highlight the paper's results and prospects.

Next, most often are the main characteristics of magazines. From this, the central part consists. Imagine your audience in your mind, try to explain the essence of the issue to them in simple language.

We pay attention to both the advantages of the proposed document and disadvantages. But at the same time, we give a reasoned assessment: according to critiques, characteristics.

Naturally, the most competent and complete information will be collected if you have studied the magazine. Of course, in this case, we will talk about a somewhat subjective personal opinion. At the same time, it is essential to be able to express this opinion tactfully and authoritatively.

The reader should not get the impression that you are forcing him to do something or discouraging him. Any reader based on your article review should add his opinion and make a decision.

The writing critique of your document should end with a proper reference section. This section is needed if, in addition to your thoughts, other people's expressions were present. This means that you used quotes from authoritative people to prove and support your ideas.

Use one citation style for all documents. APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, and Oxford are the primary manners of quotation. The general list of used literature and sources must include at least five names. The list consists of only those works that directly utilize the writing.

They cite a reference or a starting point for the author's concept indicated in the first sentence. You can not add to the list read, but not used in the magazine's work, the names of which are copied from library catalogs or taken from the bibliography in other magazines.

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journal article summary sample

Creative Writer and Blog Editor

Despite my relatively young age, I am a professional writer with more than 14 years of experience. I studied journalism at the university, worked for media and digital agencies, and organized several events for ed-tech companies. Yet for the last 6 years, I've worked mainly in marketing. Here, at Studybay, my objective is to make sure all our texts are clear, informative, and engaging.

Add Your Comment

We are very interested to know your opinion

I hold a PhD degree but have not been doing any academic research. Now, I want to start publishing in academic journals and I have really found your blog very helpful. Thank you

Dr Evelyn Iguisi

Thank you very much. It's a good idea to transfer methods in a review paper.

journal article summary sample


  1. 27+ Sample Summary Templates

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  1. Finding and Summarizing Research Articles

    Sample APA Citations In-Text Citation If the author's name is included within the text, follow the name with (year) Example: Jones (2009) found that diabetes symptoms improve with exercise. If the author's name is not included within the text, follow the sentence with (Last Name, year).

  2. How to Summarize a Journal Article (with Pictures)

    3. Identify key vocabulary to use in the summary. Make sure all the major keywords that are used in the article make it into your summary. It's important that you fully examine the meanings of these more complicated terms so that your summary reader can grasp the content as you move forward with the summary.

  3. PDF Journal Article Summary Guide

    Summaries, like abstracts, follow the structure of the original article: Introduction (and Background), Methods, Results, and Discussion. They frequently require an APA citation. Summaries generally do not make use of direct quotes. DIRECTIONS: To compose your summary, follow prompts 1- 6. Use the questions after each prompt to guide your writing.

  4. How to Write Article Summaries, Reviews & Critiques

    Your summary should include: Introduction Give an overview of the article, including the title and the name of the author. Provide a thesis statement that states the main idea of the article. Body Paragraphs Use the body paragraphs to explain the supporting ideas of your thesis statement.

  5. PDF Format for reviewing an article

    Sample Format For Reviewing A Journal Article Reading and summarizing a research article in the behavioral or medical sciences can be overwhelming. ... Go back and read the Literature Review or Background section of the article. Toward the end of the section, the authors should identify gaps in the existing literature and tell the reader how ...

  6. How to Write a Peer Review

    1. Summary of the research and your overall impression In your own words, summarize what the manuscript claims to report. This shows the editor how you interpreted the manuscript and will highlight any major differences in perspective between you and the other reviewers. Give an overview of the manuscript's strengths and weaknesses.

  7. How to Write a Summary of a Journal Article in 4 Steps

    Find an article. Read the article. Gather information. Write the summary. Online research has become an essential step for any kind of writing. John Schnobrich/Unsplash. 1. Find an Article. There are many places that have journal articles, but sometimes it's hard to know if they are credible.

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    How to Summarize a Journal Article. Read the abstract: Abstracts are short paragraphs that are written by author and mostly it is 100 to 200 words. It provides a short summary of the original source. The purpose of it is to scan the journal quickly. Try to read journal article summary example to gain ideas.

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    A journal article is a piece of research, usually scientific or scholarly, published in a peer-reviewed academic journal. They are usually written by professionals and reviewed by other...

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  14. Writing a Literature Review

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    The top 10 journal articles This year, APA's 89 journals published more than 4,000 articles. Here are the most downloaded to date. By Lea Winerman December 2018, Vol 49, No. 11 Print version: page 36 7 min read 41 Cite this Winerman, L. (2018, December 1). The top 10 journal articles.

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    Journal of Educational Psychology ®. Impacts of the Let's Know! Curriculum on the Language and Comprehension-Related Skills of Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children. August 2022. by Language and Reading Research Consortium, Meng-Ting Lo, and Menglin Xu. Lateral Reading on the Open Internet: A District-Wide Field Study in High School ...

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    Yongli Li received the Ph.D. degree in management science and engineering from the Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, in 2015. He is currently a Professor with the School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology. He has published about 40 articles as the first author or the corresponding author in international journals including the Journal of Economic Behavior and ...

  18. Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper

    Sample Abstract/Summary 3 From the sciences. ... This journal provides multiple ways for readers to grasp the content of this research article quickly. In addition to this paragraph-length prose summary, this article also has an effective graphical abstract, a bulleted list of highlights list at the beginning of the article, and a two-sentence ...

  19. Write and structure a journal article well

    Abstract. The purpose of your abstract is to express the key points of your research, clearly and concisely. An abstract must always be well considered, as it is the primary element of your work that readers will come across. An abstract should be a short paragraph (around 300 words) that summarizes the findings of your journal article.

  20. How to Cite a Journal Article

    In an MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article, the article title appears in quotation marks, the name of the journal in italics—both in title case. List up to two authors in both the in-text citation and the Works Cited entry. For three or more, use "et al.". MLA format. Author last name, First name.

  21. How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style

    An APA Style citation for a journal article includes the author name (s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format. Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr Webpage Book Video Journal article Online news article Cite

  22. PDF Acceptable Research Journals

    General Format for Journal Article Summary Top of Page - Bibliographic Information Your Name and Lab section Author, A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (Year). Title of the journal article with only the first ... for example: (p. 38), otherwise it is considered plagiarized. With the exception of perhaps one or two sentences, the abstract should ...

  23. JMMP

    Next Article in Journal. Boosting Productivity of Laser Powder Bed Fusion for AlSi10Mg. Previous Article in Journal. ... In this review, sample sizes were found to range from a minimum of ≈25 to a maximum of ≈160 μm in diameter, with thicknesses ranging over 5-30 μm. For reference, typical spot sizes were in the range of 9 to >120 μm. ...

  24. Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

    Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited periodical sources. For a complete list of how to cite periodical publications, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication ...

  25. Co-infection of tick-borne bacterial pathogens in ticks in Inner

    Author summary Ticks carry and transmit a variety of pathogens, and their host animals are widely distributed in nature with diverse epidemic links, so that several tick-borne diseases can coexist in the same foci, and even one type of tick or one tick can carry a variety of pathogens at the same time, these factors pose a serious public health threat. In our study, we summarized the regional ...

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    An article review should begin with a name, including citations from the source in question. Place the link at the top of the work. If an intention is mentioned from another text, then this is not a direct quotation of the stuff. Or if there is a link to an entire book, article.