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Zoology is the scientific study of animals. This discipline can include animal anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, evolution, ecology, behaviour and conservation.
News & Views | 07 March 2023
From the archive: ancient mazes, and ants under observation
- Animal behaviour
- Animal physiology
Latest Research and Reviews
Research 09 March 2023 | Open Access
A low-cost smartphone fluorescence microscope for research, life science education, and STEM outreach
- Madison A. Schaefer
- , Heather N. Nelson
- & Jacob H. Hines
Population trends of striped hyena ( Hyaena hyaena ) in Israel for the past five decades
- , Jakub Z. Kosicki
- & Reuven Yosef
Comparative analysis of Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus responses to genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation
- Lamees N. Ghebryal
- , Magda M. Noshy
- & Shaymaa M. Eissa
Bioactivity of brassica seed meals and its compounds as ecofriendly larvicides against mosquitoes
- Lina B. Flor-Weiler
- , Robert W. Behle
- & William T. Hay
Research 08 March 2023 | Open Access
Horses cross-modally recognize women and men
- Chloé Gouyet
- , Monamie Ringhofer
- & Léa Lansade
Research | 08 March 2023
Protomelission is an early dasyclad alga and not a Cambrian bryozoan
Protomelission -like macrofossils from the Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte show features characteristic of dasycladalean green alga, suggesting that Protomelission is unlikely to be an early bryozoan.
- & Martin R. Smith
News and Comment
Research Highlights | 09 March 2023
Watch them waggle: bees dance better after lessons from elders
Well-schooled bees’ performances convey where to find food sources, but uneducated insects’ dances mislead.
Research Highlights | 08 March 2023
These baby mice bawl loudly — and Mum rushes over
Very young deer mice make squeaks audible to the human ear as well as ultrasound calls similar to those made by house mouse pups.
Snippets from Nature ’s past.
News | 01 March 2023
Anxiety can be created by the body, mouse heart study suggests
Artificially raising a mouse’s heart rate leads to anxious behaviour.
- Sara Reardon
News | 23 February 2023
Sex, food or water? How mice decide
Neurons that regulate a mouse’s response to hunger and thirst also influence social interactions with the opposite sex.
- Heidi Ledford
Correspondence | 16 February 2023
The case for the reintroduction of cheetahs to India
- Adrian S. W. Tordiffe
- , Yadvendradev V. Jhala
- & Laurie Marker
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Pan-retinal ganglion cell markers in mice, rats, and rhesus macaques
Current understanding of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway: Structure, regulatory mechanisms, and related diseases
Towards magnetism in pigeon MagR: Iron- and iron-sulfur binding work indispensably and synergistically
Dusp1 regulates thermal tolerance limits in zebrafish by maintaining mitochondrial integrity
Interactions among deep-sea mussels and their epibiotic and endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria: Insights from multi-omics analysis
Chicken chromatin accessibility atlas accelerates epigenetic annotation of birds and gene fine-mapping associated with growth traits
Genomic analysis of indigenous goats in Southwest Asia reveals evidence of ancient adaptive introgression related to desert climate
Single-nucleus transcriptomic profiling of multiple organs in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and protection against reinfection in rats
Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease: Applications, evaluation, and perspectives
Optimization of sgRNA expression strategy to generate multiplex gene-edited pigs
Virome in healthy pangolins reveals compatibility with multiple potentially zoonotic viruses
Antiviral effects of natural small molecules on aquatic rhabdovirus by interfering with early viral replication
Global cold-chain related SARS-CoV-2 transmission identified by pandemic-scale phylogenomics
Deficiency of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein γ-8 leads to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in mice
Genomics and morphometrics reveal the adaptive evolution of pikas
Coevolutionary insights between promoters and transcription factors in the plant and animal kingdoms
Phylogenetic analysis of combined mitochondrial genome and 32 nuclear genes provides key insights into molecular systematics and historical biogeography of Asian warty newts of the genus Paramesotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae)
Dwindling in the mountains: Description of a critically endangered and microendemic Onychodactylus species (Amphibia, Hynobiidae) from the Korean Peninsula
Diversity of reptile sex chromosome evolution revealed by cytogenetic and linked-read sequencing
Comparative multi-locus assessment of modern Asian newts ( Cynops , Paramesotriton , and Pachytriton : Salamandridae) in southern China suggests a shared biogeographic history
Whole-genome resequencing reveals molecular imprints of anthropogenic and natural selection in wild and domesticated sheep
Ecological study of cave nectar bats reveals low risk of direct transmission of bat viruses to humans
Population and conservation status of a transboundary group of black snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus strykeri ) between China and Myanmar
Mapping big brains at subcellular resolution in the era of big data in zoology
Differences in action potential propagation speed and axon initial segment plasticity between neurons from Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice
Single-cell transcriptomic landscape of the sheep rumen provides insights into physiological programming development and adaptation of digestive strategies
Importance of genetic data from type specimens: The questionable type locality of southern white-cheeked gibbon, Nomascus siki (Delacour, 1951)
Towards a primate single-cell atlas
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its impairment in Alzheimer’s disease
Discovery of a wild, genetically pure Chinese giant salamander creates new conservation opportunities
Scan of the endogenous retrovirus sequences across the swine genome and survey of their copy number variation and sequence diversity among various Chinese and Western pig breeds
High-quality reference genomes of swallowtail butterflies provide insights into their coloration evolution
Unknown species from China: The case of phrurolithid spiders (Araneae, Phrurolithidae)
Phylogenetic relationships of the zokor genus Eospalax (Mammalia, Rodentia, Spalacidae) inferred from whole-genome analyses, with description of a new species endemic to Hengduan Mountains
Engineered T cells and their therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases
Population recovery of the critically endangered western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor ) in Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China
Towards the peak: The 10-year journey of the National Research Facility for Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis of Model Animals (Primate Facility) and a call for international collaboration in non-human primate research
Avian sibling cannibalism: Hoopoe mothers regularly use their last hatched nestlings to feed older siblings
Cenozoic Tethyan changes dominated Eurasian animal evolution and diversity patterns
Multidimensional amphibian diversity and community structure along a 2 600 m elevational gradient on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
Unexpected expression of heat-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in winter torpid bats and cold-activated TRP channels in summer active bats
The high diversity of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in pangolins alerts potential ecological risks
Site-specific and seasonal variation in habitat use of Eurasian otters ( Lutra lutra ) in western China: implications for conservation
Ancient DNA of the pygmy marmoset type specimen Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823) resolves a taxonomic conundrum
Comprehensive annotation of the Chinese tree shrew genome by large-scale RNA sequencing and long-read isoform sequencing
Diversifying on the Ark: multiple new endemic lineages of dwarf geckos from the Western Ghats provide insights into the systematics and biogeography of South Asian Cnemaspis (Reptilia: Squamata)
Deletion of phosphatidylserine flippase β-subunit Tmem30a in satellite cells leads to delayed skeletal muscle regeneration
Whole-genome resequencing of Japanese whiting ( Sillago japonica ) provide insights into local adaptations
Comparative mitogenome phylogeography of two anteater genera ( Tamandua and Myrmecophaga ; Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra): Evidence of discrepant evolutionary traits
Phylogenetic and morphological significance of an overlooked flying squirrel (Pteromyini, Rodentia) from the eastern Himalayas with the description of a new genus
Genomes reveal selective sweeps in kiang and donkey for high-altitude adaptation
Parabiosis modeling: protocol, application and perspectives
Animal secretory endolysosome channel discovery
Lower respiratory tract samples are reliable for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid diagnosis and animal model study
Mutations in spike protein and allele variations in ACE2 impact targeted therapy strategies against SARS-CoV-2
Dynamic evolution of transposable elements, demographic history, and gene content of paleognathous birds
Multilocus phylogeny suggests a distinct species status for the Nepal population of Assam macaques ( Macaca assamensis ): implications for evolution and conservation
Mitogenomic phylogeny of the Asian colobine genus Trachypithecus with special focus on Trachypithecus phayrei (Blyth, 1847) and description of a new species
Phylogeography of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Spain: a story of multiple introductions, micro-geographic stratification, founder effects, and super-spreaders
Delayed severe cytokine storm and immune cell infiltration in SARS-CoV-2-infected aged Chinese rhesus macaques
Breast cancer animal models and applications
COVID-19-like symptoms observed in Chinese tree shrews infected with SARS-CoV-2
Magnetic brain stimulation using iron oxide nanoparticle-mediated selective treatment of the left prelimbic cortex as a novel strategy to rapidly improve depressive-like symptoms in mice
Magnetic brain stimulation has greatly contributed to the advancement of neuroscience. However, challenges remain in the power of penetration and precision of magnetic stimulation, especially in small animals. Here, a novel combined magnetic stimulation system (c-MSS) was established for brain stimulation in mice. The c-MSS uses a mild magnetic pulse sequence and injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanodrugs to elevate local cortical susceptibility. After imaging of the SPIO nanoparticles in the left prelimbic (PrL) cortex in mice, we determined their safety and physical characteristics. Depressive-like behavior was established in mice using a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. SPIO nanodrugs were then delivered precisely to the left PrL cortex using in situ injection. A 0.1 T magnetic field (adjustable frequency) was used for magnetic stimulation (5 min/session, two sessions daily). Biomarkers representing therapeutic effects were measured before and after c-MSS intervention. Results showed that c-MSS rapidly improved depressive-like symptoms in CUMS mice after stimulation with a 10 Hz field for 5 d, combined with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inactivation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, which enhanced neuronal activity due to SPIO nanoparticle-mediated effects. The c-MSS was safe and effective, representing a novel approach in the selective stimulation of arbitrary cortical targets in small animals, playing a bioelectric role in neural circuit regulation, including antidepressant effects in CUMS mice. This expands the potential applications of magnetic stimulation and progresses brain research towards clinical application.
Living in forests: strata use by Indo-Chinese gray langurs ( Trachypithecus crepusculus ) and the effect of forest cover on Trachypithecus terrestriality
Studies on behavioral flexibility in response to habitat differences and degradation are crucial for developing conservation strategies for endangered species. Trachypithecus species inhabit various habitats and display different patterns of strata use; however, the effect of habitat structure on strata use remains poorly studied. Here, we investigated strata use patterns of Indo-Chinese gray langurs ( Trachypithecus crepusculus ) in a primary evergreen forest in Mt. Wuliang, southwest China, from June 2012 to January 2016. In addition, we compared T. crepusculus strata use and terrestriality with five other Trachypithecus species from previous studies. Unlike langurs living in karst forests, our study group was typically arboreal and spent only 2.9% of time on the ground. The group showed a preference for higher strata when resting and lower strata (<20 m) when moving. The langurs primarily used time on the ground for geophagy, but otherwise avoided the ground during feeding. These strata use patterns are similar to those of limestone langurs ( T. francoisi ) when using continuous forests. At the genus level ( n =6 species), we found a negative relationship between habitat forest cover and terrestriality. This negative relationship was also true for the five limestone langur species, implying limestone langurs increase territoriality in response to decreased forest cover. Our results document behavioral flexibility in strata use of Trachypithecus langurs and highlight the importance of the protection of continuous forests to promote langur conservation.
Zoonotic origins of human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2): why is this work important?
The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2 / 2019-nCoV), is a global threat to the human population. Here, we briefly summarize the available data for the zoonotic origins of HCoV-19, with reference to the other two epidemics of highly virulent coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which cause severe pneumonia in humans. We propose to intensify future efforts for tracing the origins of HCoV-19, which is a very important scientific question for the control and prevention of the pandemic.
Decoding the evolution and transmissions of the novel pneumonia coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 / HCoV-19) using whole genomic data
The outbreak of COVID-19 started in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Up to 29 February 2020, SARS-CoV-2 (HCoV-19 / 2019-nCoV) had infected more than 85 000 people in the world. In this study, we used 93 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the GISAID EpiFlu TM database to investigate the evolution and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in the first two months of the outbreak. We constructed haplotypes of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes, performed phylogenomic analyses and estimated the potential population size changes of the virus. The date of population expansion was calculated based on the expansion parameter tau ( τ ) using the formula t = τ /2 u . A total of 120 substitution sites with 119 codons, including 79 non-synonymous and 40 synonymous substitutions, were found in eight coding-regions in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Forty non-synonymous substitutions are potentially associated with virus adaptation. No combinations were detected. The 58 haplotypes (31 found in samples from China and 31 from outside China) were identified in 93 viral genomes under study and could be classified into five groups. By applying the reported bat coronavirus genome (bat-RaTG13-CoV) as the outgroup, we found that haplotypes H13 and H38 might be considered as ancestral haplotypes, and later H1 was derived from the intermediate haplotype H3. The population size of the SARS-CoV-2 was estimated to have undergone a recent expansion on 06 January 2020, and an early expansion on 08 December 2019. Furthermore, phyloepidemiologic approaches have recovered specific directions of human-to-human transmissions and the potential sources for international infected cases.
Review of the genus Brachytarsophrys (Anura: Megophryidae), with revalidation of Brachytarsophrys platyparietus and description of a new species from China
The genus-level recognition of monophyletic short-legged toads ( Brachytarsophrys ) has been recently implicated in the taxonomic debate of Megophrys sensu lato . In the present study, Brachytarsophrys is reasonably regarded as a distinct genus based on significant morphological differentiations and recent molecular analyses. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of this genus is performed, with two species groups proposed based on morphological differences and phylogenetic relationships. Particularly, Brachytarsophrys platyparietus is removed as a synonym of Brachytarsophrys carinense and considered a valid species due to significant genetic divergence and distinct morphological differences. In addition, a new species, Brachytarsophrys orientalis sp . nov ., is described based on a series of specimens collected from southeastern China. This work takes the member species of the genus Brachytarsophrys to seven, suggesting that the diversity of Brachytarsophrys is underestimated. In addition, the genus levels of other monophyletic groups within the subfamily Megophryinae are discussed.
Co-localization of two-color rAAV2-retro confirms the dispersion characteristics of efferent projections of mitral cells in mouse accessory olfactory bulb
The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), located at the posterior dorsal aspect of the main olfactory bulb (MOB), is the first brain relay of the accessory olfactory system (AOS), which can parallelly detect and process volatile and nonvolatile social chemosignals and mediate different sexual and social behaviors with the main olfactory system (MOS). However, due to its anatomical location and absence of specific markers, there is a lack of research on the internal and external neural circuits of the AOB. This issue was addressed by single-color labeling and fluorescent double labeling using retrograde rAAVs injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), anterior cortical amygdalar area (ACo), medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), and posteromedial cortical amygdaloid area (PMCo) in mice. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this AOB projection neuron labeling method and showed that the mitral cells of the AOB exhibited efferent projection dispersion characteristics similar to those of the MOB. Moreover, there were significant differences in the number of neurons projected to different brain regions, which indicated that each mitral cell in the AOB could project to a different number of neurons in different cortices. These results provide a circuitry basis to help understand the mechanism by which pheromone information is encoded and decoded in the AOS.
Neuroprotectants attenuate hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injuries in cynomolgus monkeys
Chromosomal level assembly and population sequencing ofthe Chinese tree shrew genome
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- 1 The Method of Look for Nests of Wasps
- 2 Mitogenomic phylogeny of the Asian colobine genus Trachypithecus with special focus on Trachypithecus phayrei (Blyth, 1847) and description of a new species
- 3 Chromosome Studies of Mammals
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Zoology is a journal devoted to experimental and comparative animal science . It presents a common forum for all scientists who take an explicitly organism oriented and integrative approach to the study of animal form, function, development and evolution. The journal invites papers that take a …
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Coelomocytes of the Oligochaeta earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) as evolutionary key of defense: a morphological study
Metazoans have several mechanisms of internal defense for their survival. The internal defense system evolved alongside the organisms. Annelidae have circulating coelomocytes that perform functions comparable ...
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Origin of the propatagium in non-avian dinosaurs
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A review of the reproductive system in anuran amphibians
Reproductive biology is an important topic that is well explored in many vertebrates, but information about frogs’ reproductive mechanisms could be improved. Therefore, this review aims to provide organized an...
Air–breathing behavior underlies the cell death in limbs of Rana pirica tadpoles
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Structural and immunohistochemical analysis of the cellular compositions of the liver of molly fish ( Poecilia sphenops ), focusing on its immune role
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Gene transcriptional profiles in gonads of Bacillus taxa (Phasmida) with different cytological mechanisms of automictic parthenogenesis
The evolution of automixis – i.e., meiotic parthenogenesis – requires several features, including ploidy restoration after meiosis and maintenance of fertility. Characterizing the relative contribution of nove...
Morphological evolution and diversity of pectoral fin skeletons in teleosts
The Teleostei class has the most species of the fishes. Members of this group have pectoral fins, enabling refined movements in the water. Although teleosts live in a diverse set of environments, the skeletal ...
Morphology and morphometry of the inner ear of the dromedary camel and their influence on the efficiency of hearing and equilibrium
The inner ear morphology and size are linked to hearing and balance ability. The goal of this study was to determine the morphology and morphometrics of the dromedary camel's inner ear and how it influences he...
Medaka, Oryzias latipes , egg envelopes are created by ovarian-expressed ZP proteins and liver-expressed choriogenins
The medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) egg envelope (chorion) is composed of three major glycoproteins, Zona Interna (ZI)-1, -2, and -3, that originate in the spawning female liver as the precursor proteins Choriogenin (Ch...
Allogeneic testes transplanted into partially castrated adult medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) can produce donor-derived offspring by natural mating over a prolonged period
Generally, successful testis transplantation has been considered to require immune suppression in the recipient to avoid rejection of the transplanted tissue. In the present study, we demonstrate in medaka tha...
Ancient rivers shaped the current genetic diversity of the wood mouse ( Apodemus speciosus ) on the islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan
The current distributions of organisms have been shaped by both current and past geographical barriers. However, it remains unclear how past geographical factors—currently cryptic on the sea floor—affected the...
Midnight/midday-synchronized expression of cryptochrome genes in the eyes of three teleost species, zebrafish, goldfish, and medaka
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Gene expression alterations from reversible to irreversible stages during coral metamorphosis
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Linoleic acid as corpse recognition signal in a social aphid
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Targeted deletion of liver-expressed Choriogenin L results in the production of soft eggs and infertility in medaka, Oryzias latipes
Egg envelopes (chorions) in medaka, Oryzias latipes , are composed of three major glycoproteins: ZI-1, − 2, and − 3. These gene-encoded chorion glycoproteins are expressed in the liver and/or ovarian oocytes of se...
Hedgehog signaling controls mouth opening in the amphioxus
The left-sided position of the mouth in amphioxus larvae has fascinated researchers for a long time. Despite the fundamental importance of mouth development in the amphioxus, the molecular regulation of its de...
Paedomorphosis in the Ezo salamander ( Hynobius retardatus ) rediscovered after almost 90 years
Although paedomorphosis is widespread across salamander families, only two species have ever been documented to exhibit paedomorphosis in Hynobiidae. One of these two exceptional species is Hynobius retardatus in...
Detailed morphology of tentacular apparatus and central nervous system in Owenia borealis (Annelida, Oweniidae)
The Oweniidae are marine annelids with many unusual features of organ system, development, morphology, and ultrastructure. Together with magelonids, oweniids have been placed within the Palaeoannelida, a siste...
The importance of being integrative: a remarkable case of synonymy in the genus Viridiscus (Heterotardigrada: Echiniscidae)
There are two predominant sources of taxonomically useful morphological variability in the diverse tardigrade family Echiniscidae: the internal structure and surface sculpture of the cuticular plates covering ...
Polymorphism in the symmetries of gastric pouch arrangements in the sea anemone D. lineata
Symmetry in the arrangement of body parts is a distinctive phylogenetic feature of animals. Cnidarians show both bilateral and radial symmetries in their internal organs, such as gastric pouches and muscles. H...
The balance of crystalline and amorphous regions in the fibroin structure underpins the tensile strength of bagworm silk
Protein-based materials are considered versatile biomaterials, and their biodegradability is an advantage for sustainable development. Bagworm produces strong silk for use in unique situations throughout its l...
The digestive tract as an essential organ for water acquisition in marine teleosts: lessons from euryhaline eels
Adaptation to a hypertonic marine environment is one of the major topics in animal physiology research. Marine teleosts lose water osmotically from the gills and compensate for this loss by drinking surroundin...
Integrative taxonomy resolves species identities within the Macrobiotus pallarii complex (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae)
The taxonomy of many groups of meiofauna is challenging due to their low number of diagnostic morphological characters and their small body size. Therefore, with the advent of molecular techniques that provide...
The formation of a hatching line in the serosal cuticle confers multifaceted adaptive functions on the eggshell of a cicada
Insect eggshells must meet various demands of developing embryos. These demands sometimes conflict with each other; therefore, there are tradeoffs between eggshell properties, such as robustness and permeabili...
Structure of a hinge joint with textured sliding surfaces in terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)
The study of joints in terrestrial arthropods can provide insights into the evolutionary optimization of contacting surfaces that slide without lubrication. This work reports on the structure of the joint betw...
New Indomalayan Nebularmis species (Heterotardigrada: Echiniscidae) provoke a discussion on its intrageneric diversity
Recent years have brought undeniable progress in tardigrade taxonomy, and speciose complexes were detected in a number of phylogenetic lineages. The family Echiniscidae is one such lineage; it is one of the mo...
Digit ratio in the common toad Bufo bufo : the effects of reduced fingers and of age dependency
Despite the growing number of studies describing digit ratio patterns in tetrapods, knowledge concerning certain basic issues is still scarce. In lower vertebrates such as tailless amphibians (Anura), the numb...
d -Tryptophan enhances the reproductive organ-specific expression of the amino acid transporter homolog Dr-SLC38A9 involved in the sexual induction of planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis
Many animals switch between asexual and sexual reproduction in nature. We previously established a system for the sexual induction of planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis by feeding asexual planarians with minced sexual...
Developmental fates of shark head cavities reveal mesodermal contributions to tendon progenitor cells in extraocular muscles
Vertebrate extraocular muscles (EOMs) function in eye movements. The EOMs of modern jawed vertebrates consist primarily of four recti and two oblique muscles innervated by three cranial nerves. The development...
Influence of Quaternary environmental changes on mole populations inferred from mitochondrial sequences and evolutionary rate estimation
Quaternary environmental changes fundamentally influenced the genetic diversity of temperate-zone terrestrial animals, including those in the Japanese Archipelago. The genetic diversity of present-day populati...
Functional identification of an opsin kinase underlying inactivation of the pineal bistable opsin parapinopsin in zebrafish
In the pineal organ of zebrafish larvae, the bistable opsin parapinopsin alone generates color opponency between UV and visible light. Our previous study suggested that dark inactivation of the parapinopsin ph...
Visualization of antennal lobe glomeruli activated by nonappetitive D-limonene and appetitive 1-octen-3-ol odors via two types of olfactory organs in the blowfly Phormia regina
Appetite or feeding motivation relies significantly on food odors. In the blowfly Phormia regina , feeding motivation for sucrose is decreased by the odor of d -limonene but increased by the odor of 1-octen-3-ol od...
Management of flying insects on expressways through an academic-industrial collaboration: evaluation of the effect of light wavelengths and meteorological factors on insect attraction
Insect outbreaks often occur in the absence of natural enemies and in the presence of excess suitable host materials. Outbreaks of gypsy moths are especially problematic in remote areas located in high-latitud...
New insights into the morphology and evolution of the ventral pharynx and jaws in Histriobdellidae (Eunicida, Annelida)
The jaw apparatus in several annelid families represents a powerful tool for systematic approaches and evolutionary investigations. Nevertheless, for several taxa, this character complex has scarcely been inve...
Coloration principles of the Great purple emperor butterfly ( Sasakia charonda )
The dorsal wings of male Sasakia charonda butterflies display a striking blue iridescent coloration, which is accentuated by white, orange-yellow and red spots, as well as by brown margins. The ventral wings also...
The role of clockwork orange in the circadian clock of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus
The circadian clock generates rhythms of approximately 24 h through periodic expression of the clock genes. In insects, the major clock genes period ( per ) and timeless ( tim ) are rhythmically expressed upon their ...
Morphology of Stephanella hina (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata): common phylactolaemate and unexpected, unique characters
Stephanella hina is a little studied freshwater bryozoan belonging to Phylactolaemata. It is currently the only representative of the family Stephanellidae, which in most reconstructions is early branching, somet...
Correction to: Natural selection, selective breeding, and the evolution of resistance of honeybees ( Apis mellifera) against Varroa
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
The original article was published in Zoological Letters 2020 6 :6
Sea as a color palette: the ecology and evolution of fluorescence
Fluorescence and luminescence are widespread optical phenomena exhibited by organisms living in terrestrial and aquatic environments. While many underlying mechanistic features have been identified and charact...
Evidence from ileum and liver transcriptomes of resistance to high-salt and water-deprivation conditions in camel
Camels have evolved various resistance characteristics adaptive to their desert habitats. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate stress-induced alternative splicing events as w...
Structural and bio-functional assessment of the postaxillary gland in Nidirana pleuraden (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae)
Owing to their incomplete adaptation to the terrestrial environment, amphibians possess complex cutaneous glandular systems. The skin glands not only regulate water loss and respiratory gas and salt exchange, ...
Natural selection, selective breeding, and the evolution of resistance of honeybees ( Apis mellifera) against Varroa
We examine evidence for natural selection resulting in Apis mellifera becoming tolerant or resistant to Varroa mites in different bee populations. We discuss traits implicated in Varroa resistance and how they ca...
The Correction to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2020 6 :10
Cellular and molecular aspects of oocyte maturation and fertilization: a perspective from the actin cytoskeleton
Much of the scientific knowledge on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development has come from the experiments using gametes of marine organisms that reproduce by external fertilization. In part...
First observation of larval oarfish, Regalecus russelii , from fertilized eggs through hatching, following artificial insemination in captivity
Little is known about the life history of oarfish of the genus Regalecus , although it is a famous deep-sea fish and an apparent origin of sea serpent legends. We successfully performed artificial insemination usi...
Structure and development of the complex helmet of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae)
Some insects possess complex three-dimensional (3D) structures that develop under the old cuticle prior to the last imaginal molt. Adult treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracidae) have one ...
A new redescription of Richtersius coronifer , supported by transcriptome, provides resources for describing concealed species diversity within the monotypic genus Richtersius (Eutardigrada)
Richtersius coronifer , the nominal species for the family Richtersiidae and a popular laboratory model, exemplifies a common problem in modern tardigrade taxonomy. Despite undeniable progress in the field, many o...
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Correction to: Multiple phenotypic traits as triggers of host attacks towards ant symbionts: body size, morphological gestalt, and chemical mimicry accuracy
The original article was published in Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18 :46
Mitochondria as a target and central hub of energy division during cold stress in insects
Temperature stress is one of the crucial factors determining geographical distribution of insect species. Most of them are active in moderate temperatures, however some are capable of surviving in extremely hi...
Differential time allocation of foraging workers in the subterranean termite
Foraging in group living animals such as social insects, is collectively performed by individuals. However, our understanding on foraging behavior of subterranean termites is extremely limited, as the process ...
Establishing RNAi for basic research and pest control and identification of the most efficient target genes for pest control: a brief guide
RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool for knocking-down gene function in diverse taxa including arthropods for both basic biological research and application in pest control. The conservation ...
Love bites: male frogs ( Plectrohyla , Hylidae) use teeth scratching to deliver sodefrin precursor-like factors to females during amplexus
Efficient transfer of chemical signals is important for successful mating in many animal species. Multiple evolutionary lineages of animals evolved direct sex pheromone transmission during traumatic mating—the...
Insights into the structure and morphogenesis of the giant basal spicule of the glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni
A basal spicule of the hexactinellid sponge Monorhaphis chuni may reach up to 3 m in length and 10 mm in diameter, an extreme case of large spicule size. Generally, sponge spicules are of scales from micrometers ...
The antennal scape organ of Scutigera coleoptrata (Myriapoda) and a new type of arthropod tip-pore sensilla integrating scolopidial components
Centipedes are terrestrial, predatory arthropods with specialized sensory organs. However, many aspects of their sensory biology are still unknown. This also concerns hygroreception, which is especially import...
Population variation alters aggression-associated oxytocin and vasopressin expressions in brains of Brandt’s voles in field conditions
Density-dependent change in aggressive behavior contributes to the population regulation of many small rodents, but the underlying neurological mechanisms have not been examined in field conditions. We hypothe...
Canalization and developmental stability of the yellow-necked mouse ( Apodemus flavicollis ) mandible and cranium related to age and nematode parasitism
Mammalian mandible and cranium are well-established model systems for studying canalization and developmental stability (DS) as two elements of developmental homeostasis. Nematode infections are usually acquir...
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Zoology Research Paper Writing: Recommendations for College Students
A Zoology research paper is a form of written communication in which the author succinctly presents and interprets information gathered during the process of investigation. Writing a research paper in Zoology is similar to the writing papers in many other scientific disciplines except that the format of the project and the grading criteria will differ. Make sure to use the following zoology research paper guide as well as refer to the writing recommendations provided by the course tutor.
Before you write your Zoology research paper, build a solid outline that will logically present the info that supports each of your conclusions. Make sure to organize the data into tables and figures to ensure all the evidence is provided in a logical order. Some researchers prefer to create a draft by simply putting down all of their ideas with a little regard to the sentence structure and to fix them later. Others tend to revise their content as they proceed.
The format of the Zoology research paper is usually based on the scientific method and is organized to provide the reader with an opportunity to comprehend the key points of the research. The traditional format required in all Zoology classes consists of the Title, the Abstract, the Into, the Methods, the Results, the Discussion, and the Literature Cited segments. The heading of every section (the introduction, the abstract, the results and so on) should be capitalized, centered and placed with the body of every section immediately following.
Place the title of your project along with your name at the top of the first page. If any of other classmates took part in the research process, you should also list their names. The latter should be included below your name. Plus, scientific titles should also reflect your results. If there are no results found during the research, ensure that your title clearly demonstrates that.
For instance: ‘Unexpected Diversity within the Javan Slow Loris Trade: Implications for Slow Loris Taxonomy
By: John Smith Michael Boners, Blair Williams and Tora Jones’
Here, the title of the Zoology research paper clearly states three things: the specific organism being measured (Javan Slow Loris); the response of the organism (Taxonomy) and the current situation that was observed (implications).
Try a quicker way
The abstract is a brief summary of the research. The segment should be one paragraph long and include no more than 250 words. Abstracts are usually comprised of a sentence of background, short and clear statements of the hypothesis, some precisions, the two sentences that describe the methods and the results of the research. The final sentence goes about the conclusions of your research.
In case of the Zoology research paper with the ‘Behavioral Responses of Whales and Dolphins to the Dead Conspecifics’ title, the Abstract would look pretty much like the following:
‘The scientific study of death within the taxa-comparative thanatology is dedicated to the psychological, behavioral and physiological responses to the dead conspecifics, as well as a range of processes that stand behind these responses. Some of the species that inhabit the cetaceans are known to take care of, be aroused by, attend to or be interested in the dying or dead creatures. We’ve studied the patterns and variation in cetacean responses to the dead conspecifics all over the clade. We’ve examined 85 records reported between 1980 and 2018, including 20 of 88 extant cetacean creatures. We have taken a properly weighted comparative approach in order to monitor the chosen cetacean species and found that toothed cetaceans (odontocetes) were much more likely than baleen whales (mysticetes) to attend to the dead or dying individuals. According to the research results, dolphins (93% of all records) had the greatest occurrence of the so-called attentive behavior in contrast to the average of all other cetacean clades.’
Choose Your Zoology Research Paper Topic: Tips from Our Experts
The diversity of the topics makes Zoology the kind of science where every high school, college and university student can find something relevant to his/her studies and related to his/her interests. In the list given below you will be able to find the most suitable topic and generate original work based on one:
- The Industrial Pollution: Zoological Implications on Species Development in N Region. Whether you prefer Gloucestershire, Nevada, Rio de Janeiro or Edinburg – ensure to pick the region and talk about the zoological implications on species development there.
- Psychological Effects of Animals Taken from Natural Habitat. What are they? How to help the natural habitats to get accustomed to the completely new environment?
- The American Buffalo: The Impact of Western Historical Expansion. If you think you can easily handle the History paper, go on and blend it with the Zoology aspects!
- Understanding Animal Behavior among Predators. No matter how cruel the issue may seem to you, the topic will be interesting for your college mates.
- Evolution of Turtle . These magnificent creatures come in many different sizes and face the threat of extinction. Contact the passionate researchers, who work with the sea turtles and definitely have something to say about the long path these animals have come.
- Brain Size and Species Intelligence. Do you think there is a certain connection between these parameters? If yes (or no), tell your target readers what you (or the scientists) have to say.
- Herbivorous vs. Carnivorous Animals. How can we recognize them?
- Vegetarians. Should People Stop Eating Meat for the Sake of Animals? Do you think you can survive without your favorite bacon pizza? Provide a detailed research paper, if you do.
- Reasons Why Nowadays Many Areas of Animal Life Are Preserved in Museums. Sad but true. Many magnificent animals of the past can be seen only in museums at the moment. Use your research to give the reason why.
- Are Dogs Really Our Best Friends? If you happen to be a cat person, you definitely have something to say.
- Hunting: Yay or Nay? The reality is that this barbarian habit is still allowed all over the globe. The question is about the animals that are not killed for food, but for fun only.
- Parasites and Disease: Reveal the Connections. Without a doubt, this topic isn’t quite appetite provoking, but you’ll have many interesting discoveries while conducting your research.
The introduction section concisely describes the key purpose of your research, as well as informs your readers on why you’ve actually done this work. Your task here is to briefly review the past research on the issue with enough background info needed to orient your audience (you accomplish this by a literature search of primary, peer-reviewed materials). Keep in mind that the background info provided must be properly referenced (check the how to cite references section). Check out the following right and wrong Zoology research paper introductions to ensure you got the idea:
The right way to compose an introduction:
‘Over 3 000 years ago a strange looking but very useful animals were domesticated by people of Arabia. It was the Arabian camel – a huge beast having long legs and one hump on its back. The ungainly animal could cross hot desserts without drinking much water and, what was especially useful, it could carry heavy loads without getting tired for a long time. The Bactrian camel that has two humps and lives in the central Asia was also domesticated long time ago. The animal turned out to be sturdier than the Arabian one and could easily carry heavier loads.’
The wrong way to create the introduction: ‘Many years ago people decided to domesticate camels. They were huge and had humps that enabled them to cross deserts and didn’t need much water.’
From this broad introductive part, you’re required to focus down to the specific research topic on the chosen topic: ‘According to the most recent researches, the substantial shared genetic variation was found in modern camels except for a single genetically distinct animal that has been isolated on the territory of Eastern Africa. The researchers found that domesticated camels’ populations originated from the wild populations – extinct at the present moment – on the Southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula that tallies with previously performed archaeological researches.’
The body of a Zoology research paper includes the development of the argument provided together with the essential information needed to sustain a reasonable conclusion. Ensure to divide the body of your project into the separate sections. It’s up to you to decide how many of those you think it’s appropriate to provide. Think about what these paper segments should be and start each with a clear indication if its purpose.
The proper use of headings will provide your text with helpful signposts to the target audience. Ensure you’re consistent in the use of the headings. Provide examples to support the points you’re trying to make as well as include your own comments to let the readers know why this or that point is important. Quotations are a must for a Zoology research paper, but an academic project that looks like a list of quotations won’t help you to get the desired grades.
The key is to be highly selective when it comes to the quoted materials and carefully choose the issues you think you should provide in your assignment.
Make sure you don’t just jump around the issues raised by your research question. If you find yourself doing this, ensure to take the other look at your plan to find out whether there’s an adjustment to it that you can make to avoid this.
The key aspect you have to keep in mind lies in the fact that all statements must be backed up by authority or evidence. That’s an absolute must when it comes to the Zoology research paper writing.
Finally, you need to make certain the information of the body section reflects exactly what you have pointed out in the introduction. If you see that it doesn’t, it’s time to revise one of the other…or both if needed.
Now it’s time to draw the threads of your argument together. Remember that in a conclusive section you’re not supposed to repeat the arguments provided before or re-state the introduction. The final part of your Zoology research paper should be focused on the question that you’ve specified and inform the readers on how you have answered the question. Avoid any new argument in the conclusive part of the paper.
The good example of the conclusion for the Zoology research paper on ‘Parasite Load & Disease in Wild Animals’:
In addition to the increased mortality from the causes that are possibly more painful, parasites tend to decrease the quality of life of their hosts, from minor malnutrition to serious tissue damage. A range of metrics (especially the experimental manipulations of parasite levels) suggest that animals are better off not having been parasitized. Moreover, they appear to be ubiquitous – the majority of wild animals have those all the time. Due to this, while there’s still much to learn about the parasitism, the impact and scale of it suggests that in wild life parasitism is one of the most significant causes of suffer. Easing the animals suffering from parasitism seems probably controllable as a cause area in its own right and should be taken into consideration when investigating the other measure to ease wild-animal suffering.
A Few Last Zoology Research Paper Tips to Avoid Common Errors
When you use Latin Names (you’re going to deal with a lot of those when working on any Zoology project), it’s highly important to pay due attention to the formatting of those when using Latin:
- Ecology issues: Species and genus of every organism should be always underlined or provided in italics. Species is not capitalized while genus is always capitalized. For instance: Pomacea canaliculata.
- Molecular issues: The formatting specifications for genes and their products tend to vary from species to species. Make sure to use the correct formatting for the species of interest throughout the project.
It is recommended to also consult websites that are devoted to specific species and provide the formatting information, such as The National Center for Biotechnology Information .
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Link your Google Scholar results to HSU and see which articles you have access to as an HSU student. Under Google Scholar settings, set "Library Links" to include Humboldt State University! View this short video for demonstration on how to do this.
How do I find journal articles on my topic?
There are search strategy guides tailored to science: Identifying Concepts and Generating Search Terms and AND, OR, NOT (Boolean Operators) .
Peer-reviewed articles have been read and evaluated by experts in the field to determine their quality and relevance to the subject they address before being published.
The links below explain more about peer-reviewed articles and the peer-review process.
Peer Review in 3 Minutes is a brief tutorial, from North Carolina State University that explains the peer review process in detail.
If you know of an article on your topic, you may use Citation Linker to locate the article.
Always look at the References list at the end of each relevant article you find, to see if any of the listed sources might be useful!
Google Scholar is useful when searching citations. The Advanced Scholar Search option is the best way to search for articles which cite a known article. Check the "Cited by #" link below a search result to find additional useful sources - more recent articles which cite that relevant or classic article.
More ways to search citations may also be found in the Citation Searching section of Searching the Scientific Literature .
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Ornithology, high-impact research from behavioral ecology.
Behavioral Ecology is broad-based and covers both empirical and theoretical approaches and published studies on the whole range of behaving organisms, including plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, and humans.
High-Impact Research from BioScience
BioScience presents timely and authoritative overviews of current research in biology, accompanied by essays and discussion sections on education, public policy, history, and the conceptual underpinnings of the biological sciences.
High-Impact Research from Current Zoology
Open access, Current Zoology publishes review articles and research papers in the fields of ecology, evolution and behaviour.
High-Impact Research from Integrative and Comparative Biology
Integrative and Comparative Biology publishes forward-looking reviews, synthesis, perspectives and empirical articles in integrative, comparative and organismal biology.
High-Impact Research from Animal Frontiers
Animal Frontiers publishes discussion and position papers that present international perspectives on high-impact, global issues in animal agriculture.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Animal Science
Journal of Animal Science provides new knowledge and perspectives across a range of topics in both animal production and fundamental aspects of genetics, nutrition, physiology, and the preparation and utilization of animal products.
High-Impact Research from Translational Animal Science
Translational Animal Science encompasses a broad scope of research topics in animal science, focusing on translating basic science to innovation.
High-impact research from journal of crustacean biology.
The Journal of Crustacean Biology publishes articles of broad interest on the biology of crustaceans and other marine arthropods.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Molluscan Studies
Journal of Molluscan Studies publishes research on the biology of molluscs, including the developing subjects of molecular genetics, cladistic phylogenetics and ecophysiology, as well as ecological, behavioural and systematic malacology.
High-Impact Research from Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Annals of the Entomological Society of America publishes cutting-edge research, reviews, and collections on a common topic of broad interest, across the entomological disciplines.
High-Impact Research from Arthropod Management Tests
Arthropod Management Tests publishes short reports from a single year on a routine screening test for management of arthropods that may be harmful or beneficial.
High-Impact Research from Environmental Entomology
Environmental Entomology reports on the interaction of insects with the biological, chemical, and physical aspects of their environment.
High-Impact Research from Insect Systematics and Diversity
Insect Systematics and Diversity publishes original research on systematics, evolution, and biodiversity of insects and related arthropods.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Economic Entomology
The Journal of Economic Entomology is the most-cited entomological journal and publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and other arthropods.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Insect Science
The Journal of Insect Science publishes articles based on original research, as well as Reviews, interpretive articles in a Forum section, and Short Communications in all fields of entomology.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Integrated Pest Management
An extension-focused journal publishing original articles on any aspect of integrated pest management. The Journal of Integrated Pest Management is targeted at a non-technical audience of farmers, pest control operators, foresters, and others.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Medical Entomology
Journal of Medical Entomology publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
High-Impact Research from Journal of Mammalogy
Promoting interest in mammals throughout the world, the Journal of Mammalogy publishes research on all aspects of the biology of mammals, including behavior, conservation, ecology, genetics, morphology, physiology, and taxonomy.
High-Impact Research from Mammalian Species
Mammalian Species is published by the American Society of Mammalogists with 15-35 individual species accounts issued each year, summarizing the current understanding of the biology of an individual species including systematics, distribution, fossil history, genetics, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation.
High-Impact Research from Ornithology
Ornithology publishes original research from all parts of the globe that tests fundamental, scientific hypotheses through ornithological studies and advances our understanding of living or extinct bird species.
High-Impact Research from Ornithological Applications
Ornithological Applications publishes original research, syntheses, and assessments on the application of scientific theory, ornithological knowledge, and methods to the conservation and management of birds and to policy.
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The Journal of Zoology publishes high-quality research papers that are original and are of broad interest. The Editors seek studies that are
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